Liver disease has become a lifestyle disease in India, with the incidence of non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease now much higher than hepatitis B virus as the main cause of liver disorders, said experts here ahead of the World Liver Day.
World liver day is observed on every April 19, to spread awareness about liver related disease. The liver is the second largest and the most complex organ in the body, after the brain. It is a key player in our body's digestive system.
Fatty liver condition occurs when fat builds up in the liver that can cause liver inflammation, and damage your liver and create scarring. In severe cases, the scarring can lead to liver failure.
Among people who drink a lot of alcohol, the condition is known as alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), while among those who don't drink a lot, it's metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), earlier known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
MAFLD is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Lifestyle changes involving obesity, sedentary lifestyle, food rich in sugar, calories and fat, and alcohol are the main reasons behind the poor liver health.
According to Dr Bhaskar Nandi, HOD - Liver & Digestive Sciences, Sarvodaya Hospital, Faridabad, till a few decades back, the most common cause of chronic liver disease in India was hepatitis B infection, that led to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.
"However, fatty liver, a metabolic disorder, now constitutes the largest burden of liver disease today due to changing lifestyle of people," he said. Nandi added that as many as "80 per cent of people coming for an ultrasound checkup today are found to have fatty liver disease".
While about one in three of these will progress to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, cirrhosis, or end-stage liver disease, it is difficult to predict which ones will fall in that one-third bracket.
"India is seeing a significant rise in liver problems due to lifestyle changes. To fight liver disease, it is necessary to change our lifestyle - proper and healthy diet, exercise, avoid drinking alcohol or drink in moderation, increasing our screening," Dr. Pankaj Puri, from Fortis Escorts Liver and Digestive Diseases Institute, told IANS.
Often liver disease goes undiagnosed for years, as the initial stages generally have no symptoms and people feel well, and routine blood tests may not show liver abnormalities.
Globally, liver condition is seen in about 25 per cent or one in four adults that often goes undiagnosed, raising the risk for heart disease, according to a new American Heart Association scientific statement.
Nandi said that liver disease is fast becoming a public health problem for India. In 2015, acute and chronic liver diseases accounted for 2 million deaths worldwide, 18 per cent of whom were from India. The burden of liver disease has consistently been increasing in the country since then.
While hepatitis B vaccination is commonly given to children for immunisation, it is not popular among adults. "Every year, more than 115,000 people die in India due to hepatitis B related complications. About 4 crore people in the country are carriers of this virus but remain asymptomatic and unaware of the risk they pose to others," Nandi said.
"Unlike in the West where main causes of transmission of hepatitis B virus include infected needles and sexual contact, in India, the spread is due to horizontal transmission by staying in proximity with an infected individual, like a family member who is asymptomatic," he noted.
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New York: About 25 per cent or one in four adults worldwide has a liver condition, often undiagnosed, that raises risk for heart disease, according to a new American Heart Association scientific statement.
The condition, called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), occurs when abnormally elevated amounts of fat are deposited in the liver, sometimes resulting in inflammation and scarring.
"NAFLD is a common condition that is often hidden or missed in routine medical care. It is important to know about the condition and treat it early because it is a risk factor for chronic liver damage and cardiovascular disease," said P. Barton Duell, chair of the statement writing committee.
The statement is published in the Association's peer-reviewed journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.
There are two types of NAFLD: one when only fat is present in the liver (called non-alcoholic fatty liver), and the other when inflammation and scarring are also present (called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH).
NAFLD often raises risk of heart disease and is the leading cause of death in people with the liver condition.
The diseases share many of the same risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (elevated blood sugar and blood triglycerides, increased abdominal fat and high blood pressure); Type 2 diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes); and obesity.
However, people with NAFLD are at higher risk of heart disease than people who have the same heart disease risk factors without the liver condition.
NAFLD can go undiagnosed for years, as the initial stages generally have no symptoms and people feel well, and routine blood tests may not show liver abnormalities.
Often, elevated liver enzymes in blood, a possible sign of NAFLD, may be mis-attributed to a side effect of medication or to recent alcohol consumption. In addition, the absence of elevated liver enzyme levels does not rule out NAFLD or NASH.
According to the statement, a specialised ultrasound that measures liver elasticity, fat and stiffness (a result of scarring) in the liver can detect NAFLD.
This type of liver scan is a non-invasive way to help diagnose and monitor treatment in NAFLD and NASH, yet it is underused. Liver biopsy is the definitive test for the diagnosis of more advanced stages of NAFLD, however, it is invasive and expensive.
However, NAFLD is often preventable by maintaining a healthy body weight, exercising regularly, eating a heart-healthy foods diet and managing conditions such as Type 2 diabetes and elevated triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood, the statement noted. (Agency)
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Adults with a history of allergic disorders as well as asthma have an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease, finds a study.
The study led by teams at Shenzhen Peking University in China showed that individuals with a history of allergic disorders between ages 18 and 57 had a higher risk of high blood pressure.
A higher risk of coronary heart disease was seen in study participants who were between ages 39-57 and males. Asthma contributed most to the risk of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease.
"For patients with allergic disorders, routine evaluation of blood pressure and routine examination for coronary heart disease should be given by clinicians to ensure early treatments are given to those with hypertension or coronary heart disease," said Yang Guo, from the University's Department of Dermatology.
Previous studies reported an association between allergic disorders and cardiovascular disease, which remain controversial findings, the team said. The current study aimed to determine whether adults with allergic disorders have increased cardiovascular risk.
The team included 34,417 adults, over half of whom were women and averaged 48.5 years old.
The allergic group, with 10,045 adults, had at least one allergic disorder, including asthma, respiratory allergy, digestive allergy, skin allergy and other allergy.
"Further large cohort studies with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm our findings," Guo said. "Additionally, appreciating the underlying mechanism may help future management in such individuals."
The study will be presented at ACC Asia 2022 together with the Korean Society of Cardiology Spring Conference on April 15-16.
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टोरंटो: किडनी की बीमारी से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों को न सिर्फ कैं सर होने का अधिक खतरा होता है, बल्कि उनकी कैंसर से मौत होने की संभावना भी अधिक रहती है।
अमेरिकन जर्नल ऑफ किडनी डिजीजेज में प्रकाशित शोध अध्ययन के मुताबिक जो व्यक्ति लंबे समय से किडनी की बीमारी से जूझ रहे हैं, उनके कैंसर ग्रसित होने का खतरा भी अधिक है।
टोरंटो यूनिवर्सिटी के अभिजात किचलू इस शोध रिपोर्ट के सह लेखक हैं। किचलू कहते हैं कि किडनी संबंधी बीमारी से ग्रसित व्यक्ति को कैंसर होने का खतरा अधिक होता है। जो व्यक्ति हल्के और थोड़े अधिक रूप से किडनी की बीमारी से ग्रसित हैं और जिनका किडनी प्रत्यारोपण हुआ है, उनको कैंसर होने का अधिक खतरा है।
उन्होंने कहा कि जिन लोगों को किडनी की बीमारी होती है, उनके कैंसर पीड़ित होने पर मौत का अधिक खतरा रहता है, खासकर अगर उन्हें यूरोलॉजिक कैंसर, पेट का कैंसर या मल्टीपल माइलोमा हो जाये। उन्होंने कहा कि किडनी की बीमारी से लंबे समय से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों में कैंसर की जांच की रणनीति बनानी जरूरी है।
शोध के दौरान 58,82,388 लोगों के आंकड़ों का विश्लेषण किया गया। ये वो लोग थे, जो किडनी की बीमारी से ग्रसित थे या डायलिसीस पर थे या उनका किडनी प्रत्यारोपण हुआ था। (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► नशीली दवाओं के सेवन से गर्भस्थ शिशु हो सकता है मोटापे और मधुमेह का शिकार
New York: Close the blinds, draw the curtains and turn off all the lights before bed because exposure to even moderate ambient lighting during night-time sleep can harm your health.
According to researchers at Northwestern University in the US, even dim light can harm cardiovascular function during sleep and increase insulin resistance the following morning.
"The results from this study demonstrate that just a single night of exposure to moderate room lighting during sleep can impair glucose and cardiovascular regulation, which are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome," said Dr. Phyllis Zee, chief of sleep medicine at the University's Feinberg School of Medicine.
"It's important for people to avoid or minimise the amount of light exposure during sleep," Zee said.
The study, published in the journal PNAS, tested the effect of sleeping with 100 lux (moderate light) compared to 3 lux (dim light) in participants over a single night.
The investigators discovered that moderate light exposure caused the body to go into a higher alert state. In this state, the heart rate increases as well as the force with which the heart contracts and the rate of how fast the blood is conducted to your blood vessels for oxygenated blood flow.
"Even though you are asleep, your autonomic nervous system is activated. That's bad. Usually, your heart rate together with other cardiovascular parameters are lower at night and higher during the day," said Dr. Daniela Grimaldi, research assistant professor of neurology at Northwestern.
Further, the investigators found insulin resistance occurred the morning after people slept in a light room. Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat and liver do not respond well to insulin and can't use glucose from your blood for energy. To make up for it, your pancreas makes more insulin. Over time, your blood sugar goes up.
"In addition to sleep, nutrition and exercise, light exposure during the daytime is an important factor for health, but during the night we show that even modest intensity of light can impair measures of heart and endocrine health," Zee said.
"These findings are important particularly for those living in modern societies where exposure to indoor and outdoor nighttime light is increasingly widespread," Zee said. (Agency)
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London: Increased levels of blood fats, also known as lipids, in people with Type 2 diabetes and obesity are more harmful than previously thought, a new study has found.
In patients with metabolic diseases, elevated fat levels in the blood create stress in muscle cells -- a reaction to changes outside the cell which damage their structure and function.
The study, published in the journal Nature Communications showed that these stressed-out cells give off a signal which can be passed on to other cells.
The signals, known as ceramides, may have a protective benefit in the short-term, because they are part of a mechanism designed to reduce stress in the cell. But in metabolic diseases, which are long term conditions, the signals can kill the cells, make symptoms more severe, and worsen the illness, said researchers at University of Leeds in the UK.
Increased fat in the blood has long been known to damage tissues and organs, contributing to the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases including Type 2 diabetes. The condition can be caused by obesity, rates of which have nearly tripled worldwide between 1975 and 2020.
"This research gives us a novel perspective on how stress develops in the cells of individuals with obesity, and provides new pathways to consider when looking to develop new treatments for metabolic diseases," said Lee Roberts, Professor of Molecular Physiology and Metabolism in the University's School of Medicine.
"With obesity an ever-increasing epidemic, the burden of associated chronic disease such as Type 2 diabetes necessitates new treatments. We hope the results of our research here open a new avenue for research to help address this growing concern," he added.
In the lab, the team replicated the blood fat levels observed in humans with metabolic disease by exposing skeletal muscle cells to a fatty acid called palmitate. The cells began to transmit the ceramide signal.
When these cells were mixed with others which had not been previously exposed to fats, the researchers found that they communicated with each other, transporting the signal in packages called extracellular vesicles.
The experiment was reproduced in human volunteers with metabolic diseases and gave comparable results. The findings provide a completely new angle on how cells respond to stress, with important consequences for our understanding of certain metabolic diseases including obesity. (Agency)
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