New York, July 1 (IANS) While cigarette smoke is known to increase the risk of lung disease and Covid-19 infection, a new study on mice showed similar effects with exposure to e-cigarette vapour, particularly when nicotine is present in the vapour.The study, by researchers, including one of Indian-origin from the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, US, showed that mice exposed to e-cigarette vapor had inflammation of their lung tissue and reduced lung function, confirming the dangers of vaping.The finding is relevant to humans as exposure to e-cigarette vapour increased levels of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) -- the receptor on the surface of cells that SARS-CoV-2 uses to invade.Using the spike-like protein on its surface like a key, the novel coronavirus binds to the ACE2 receptor found in the lining of our airways, and unlocks its path into our lung cells."Our findings provide rationale for looking at the effect of vaping on ACE-2 levels in the lungs of humans," said Pawan Sharma, from the varsity's Center for Translational Medicine."If a similar induction of ACE-2 is seen, it provides further evidence for vaping being a risk factor for Covid-19 and can help us understand how to prevent and mitigate infection in this population," he added. The study was published in the Journal of Investigative Medicine.The researchers housed female or male mice in a box attached to an automated system that delivered precisely controlled amounts of e-cigarette vapour, with or without nicotine, for 30 min, twice a day for 21 days.Compared to control mice that breathed room air, mice exposed to e-cigarette vapour had an increase in the levels of the ACE-2 receptor in the lungs, male and female.Though this was not tested in the current study, higher levels of ACE-2 receptor could make it easier for the virus to enter the airways, increasing susceptibility to infection, the researchers said.Interestingly, the presence of nicotine in the vapour further enhanced the increase in ACE-2 specifically in male mice. Though further research is needed to understand the complexity of risk factors for Covid-19, this result sheds light on important physiological differences that make one sex potentially more vulnerable, they added.--IANSrvt/ksk/
New Delhi, March 5 (IANS) Millions of vapers across Asia could feel forced to return to smoking if a proposal from the World Health Organization (WHO) on e-cigarettes and other smokeless products is passed by lawmakers, Coalition of Asia Pacific Tobacco Harm Reduction Advocates (CAPHRA) said on Friday.A new report published by WHO's tobacco regulatory committee recommends nearly all vapes be banned, especially the so-called "open" systems.In the open system, which is the preferred way of vaping for many people across Asia, the consumer manually refills the liquid to be vaporised.According to the WHO, this system allows for the addition of substances which could make the product more harmful."The latest recommendation from WHO defies all logic," Nancy Loucas, the Executive Coordinator of CAPHRA, said in a statement."If countries adopt the recommendation to ban open-system vapes, years of hard work by ex-smokers as well as good public policy will be rendered meaningless.""Let there be no doubt: vapers will then go back to cigarettes, which is the worst possible outcome.""Banning any product is not the answer, nor is applying blanket cigarette rules to all emerging products. Bans encourage the black market. Bans do not allow for proper consumer protection," Loucas said.CAPHRA is calling on governments to adopt evidence-based, common sense regulations for all vaping products."Just last week, the UK's leading health agency, Public Health England (PHE), concluded that nicotine vaping products were the most popular aid used by smokers trying to quit," Loucas said."On the one hand, you have a local public health agency looking into the evidence and ways in which smokers can be encouraged to quit smoking and vape, and on the other you have a global agency stuck in their old ways of believing prohibition is the answer to everything.""WHO's attitude to e-cigarettes has been devastating for millions and millions of smokers and vapers alike all around the world," Loucas said.CAPHRA said it's only through regulating products can vapers remain protected, encouraged to stop smoking, and as a result, achieve good public health outcomes.--IANSgb/na
New York, Jan 11 (IANS) If you are a youth and use vape, you are three times as likely to become a daily smoker in the future, a new study suggests.The findings showed that those who reported using a tobacco product, daily use increased with age through age 28. Daily cigarette smoking nearly doubled between 18 to 21 year olds (12 per cent) and 25 to 28 year olds (21 per cent)."In these data, e-cigarettes are a gateway for those who become daily cigarette smokers," said the study's first author, John P. Pierce, Professor Emeritus at University of California, San Diego."The start product has changed from cigarettes to e-cigarettes, but the end product has stayed the same. When users become dependent on nicotine, they are converting to cigarette smoking," Pierce added.For the study, published in the journal Pediatrics, the team used data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a longitudinal study of tobacco use and its effect.The study enrolled a nationally representative sample of 12 to 24 year olds between in 2013 and 2014 and re-interviewed them annually for four years to explore progression to daily use among experimenters of 12 tobacco products.In the first year, 45 per cent of study participants reported using at least one tobacco product in their lifetime.By the fourth year, as participants aged, 62 per cent reported some tobacco experimentation, the study reported.Among those who have ever experimented with tobacco, 73 per cent had tried cigarettes and 72 per cent had tried e-cigarettes.Further, more than half tried hookahs and cigarillos. Traditional cigars, filtered cigars, smokeless products, pipes and snus were each tried by more than 10 per cent of study participants.The analyses revealed that, by year four, 12 per cent of participants were using tobacco products daily -- half of whom became daily users after the first year.Seventy per cent of daily users smoked cigarettes and most of them (63 per cent) used cigarettes exclusively. Of those who smoked cigarettes and used another tobacco product, half vaped e-cigarettes on a non-daily basis.Less than 1 per cent of study participants who experimented with just one tobacco product progressed to daily cigarette smoking.People who had tried five or more products increased their risk of becoming daily cigarette smokers by 15 percentage points.--IANSvc/ksk/
New York, Jan 8 (IANS) If you use vape thinking that traditional cigarettes has more harmful effects, then you need to reconsider about it as a new study indicates that e-cigarettes disrupt the gut barrier and trigger inflammation in the body, potentially leading to a variety of health concerns.According to the researchers, including Indian-origin, chemicals used for vaping break down zipper-like junctions between cells in the gut, leading to chronic inflammation and potential for other health concerns."This is the first study that demonstrates how chronic exposure to e-cigarettes increases the gut's susceptibility to bacterial infections, leading to chronic inflammation and other health concerns," said the researcher, Soumita Das, Associate Professor, University of California, San Diego."Given the importance of the gut barrier in the maintenance of the body's immune homeostasis, the findings offer valuable insight into the potential long-term harmful effects chronic use of e-cigarettes on our health," Das added.For the study, published in the journal iScience, the team used 3D models of human intestinal tracts generated from patient cells and simulated what happens when e-cigarette vapors enter the gut lining. To produce the 3D gut organoids, the researchers collected stem cells from patients' biopsies during colonoscopies and grew them in vitro. The stem cells differentiated into the four different cell types that make up the gut lining. The team then exposed the organoids to e-cigarette liquid vapor, mimicking the frequency of a chronic vaper. They noted that epithelial tight conjunction markers, which are zipper-like proteins that form the gut's first physical barrier, began to break or loosen, causing pathogens from the vapor to seep into the surrounding immune system, wreaking havoc on protective epithelial cells that lie just beneath. Such cells act as a defence against infection by clearing pathogenic microbes and initiating certain immune responses in the body. When exposed to the e-cigarette liquid, the cells were quickly overwhelmed, unable to effectively clear pathogens, resulting in gut inflammation. "Anything we eat or drink, our lifestyle choices in other words, has the ability to impact our gut microbes, the gut barrier and overall health. Now we know that what we smoke, such as e-cigarettes, negatively impacts it as well," a researcher said.--IANSvc/pgh
New York, If you are planning to quit smoking, then picking up vaping to reduce the frequency can be a bad idea, researchers say.
According to the researchers, combining traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes may result in harmful health effects similar to smoking cigarettes exclusively.
"Some people who smoke cigarettes, pick up e-cigarette use to reduce the frequency with which they smoke cigarettes. They often become dual users of both products rather than switching entirely from one to the other," said Andrew C. Stokes, Assistant Professor at Boston University School in the US.
"If e-cigarettes are used as a means to quit smoking, cigarette smoking should be completely replaced and a plan to ultimately attain freedom from all tobacco products should be advised," Stokes added.
The study suggests that the participants who used both cigarettes and e-cigarettes had levels of all inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers comparable to those who smoked exclusively.
For the study, published in the American Heart Association's flagship journal Circulation, researchers studied the association of cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use with inflammation and oxidative stress as biomarkers in more than 7,100 US adults.
According to the researchers, inflammation and oxidative stress are key contributors to smoking-induced cardiovascular disease and their biomarkers have been shown to be predictors of cardiovascular events, including heart attack and heart failure.
Five biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed. Participants were slotted into four categories based on the use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes within a 30-day period: non-use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes; exclusive vaping; exclusive cigarette smoking; and dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.
To test the robustness of initial results, the scientists repeated the analyses in subgroups of respondents, including those with no past 30-day use of any other tobacco products.
Of the study participants, more than half (58.6 per cent) did not use cigarettes or e-cigarettes; nearly 2 per cent vaped exclusively; about 30 per cent smoked cigarettes exclusively; and about 10 per cent used e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes.
The analysis found that participants who vaped exclusively showed a similar inflammatory and oxidative stress profile as people who did not smoke cigarettes or use e-cigarettes.
Participants who smoked exclusively and those who used cigarettes and e-cigarettes had higher levels across all biomarkers assessed compared to participants who did not use cigarettes or e-cigarettes.
Compared to participants who smoked exclusively, those who vaped exclusively had significantly lower levels of almost all inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. (IANS)
New York, Dec 29 (IANS) There appears to be a clear link between e-cigarette use and mental fog as two new studies have found that those who vape were more likely to report difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions than their non-vaping, non-smoking peers.It also appeared that kids were more likely to experience mental fog if they started vaping before the age of 14."Our studies add to growing evidence that vaping should not be considered a safe alternative to tobacco smoking," said study author Dongmei Li, Associate Professor at University of Rochester Medical Centre (URMC) in New York.The studies, published in the journals Tobacco Induced Diseases and Plos One, analysed over 18,000 middle and high school student responses to the National Youth Tobacco Survey in the US and more than 886,000 responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System phone survey from US adults. Both surveys asked similar questions about smoking and vaping habits as well as issues with memory, attention and mental function.Both studies showed that people who smoke and vape -- regardless of age -- are most likely to report struggling with mental function. Behind that group, people who only vape or only smoke reported mental fog at similar rates, which were significantly higher than those reported by people who do not smoke or vape.The youth study also found that students who reported starting to vape early -- between eight and 13 years of age -- were more likely to report difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions than those who started vaping at 14 or older."With the recent rise in teen vaping, this is very concerning and suggests that we need to intervene even earlier," said Li. While the URMC studies clearly show an association between vaping and mental function, it is not clear which causes which. It is possible that nicotine exposure through vaping causes difficulty with mental function. But it is equally possible that people who report mental fog are simply more likely to smoke or vape -- possibly to self-medicate.Li and her team say that further studies that follow kids and adults over time are needed to parse the cause and effect of vaping and mental fog. --IANSgb/in