One in 12 adults or more than 74 million people living in India are diabetes patients, according to a new report from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), ahead of the World Diabetes Day on Saturday.
The figure is the second highest in the world after China, which has 141 million people living with diabetes.
The findings are from the 10th edition of the IDF Diabetes Atlas to be published on December 6.
The report added that another 40 million adults in India have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), placing them at high risk of developing Type-2 diabetes, while more than half (53.1 per cent) of people living with diabetes in India are also undiagnosed.
"The increasing number of people living with diabetes and at risk of developing the condition in India confirms diabetes as a significant challenge to the health and well-being of individuals and families in the country," said Professor Shashank Joshi, Chair, IDF South-East Asia Region, in a statement.
Moreover, the report showed that worldwide, 537 million adults are now living with diabetes, a rise of 16 per cent (74 million) since the previous IDF estimates in 2019. Globally, 90 per cent of people with diabetes have Type-2 diabetes.
The total number of diabetics is predicted to rise to 643 million (11.3 per cent) by 2030 and to 783 million (12.2 per cent) by 2045. Currently, one in ten (10.5 per cent) adults around the world are living with diabetes.
Diabetes was also responsible for an estimated $966 billion in global health expenditure in 2021. This represents a 316 per cent increase over 15 years.
Excluding the mortality risks associated with the Covid-19 pandemic, approximately 6.7 million adults are estimated to have died as a result of diabetes, or its complications, in 2021.
This is more than one in ten (12.2 per cent) of global deaths from all causes. The South-East Asia Region accounts for 11 per cent (747,000) of total diabetes-related deaths, according to the report.
The rise in the number of people with Type-2 diabetes is driven by a complex interplay of socio-economic, demographic, environmental and genetic factors. Key contributors include urbanisation, an ageing population, decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing levels of people being overweight and developing obesity.
"We must do more to provide affordable and uninterrupted access to diabetes care for all in India, and around the world. Policy makers and health decision-makers must turn words into action to improve the lives of people with diabetes and prevent the condition in those at high risk of developing it," Joshi said.
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Negative calorie food refers to those items that consume more energy during their digestion, in comparison to the amount of energy they gives to the body. We can say that the calorie cost of digesting the food would be greater than its energy content.
These foods are typically high in fibre and have a low glycaemic index. Calories are an important component of food and everything we eat has calories. Calories are of two types. One is empty calories which don't have much nutritive value but just has calories and promotes weight gain. Foods with high fibre and water content usually have fewer calories and we need more energy to digest them, these are called negative calorie foods. These foods help to lose weight as they are not only low in calories but also help to burn out more calories than others. Most negative calorie foods are plant-based.
Here we are sharing the following 10 negative calorie foods:
It contains 16 kcal/100g. It is rich in fibre, vitamin A, C and Folate. It is one of the most popular negative food items as most of its calorie value is stored in cellulose. Our body receives very few calories from celery as it is full of undigested fibre.
Colourful berries such as blueberries, strawberries, raspberries typically contain just 32 kcal for a half-cup quantity. Berries are called negative calorie foods because of their low glycaemic index and their protein content. It also contains antioxidants, which protects us from various cancers.
It has 19kcal/100g. Apart from its water content, it is an excellent source of fibre, potassium and vitamin C. Tomatoes also contain lycopene, an antioxidant known to protect us from skin cancer.
They contain 41 kcal/100g. Its vitamin A content is good for the eyes. Carrot fibre content keeps the stomach full for a longer time thus helps in weight loss.
It contains 15 kcal/100g. This vegetable has high water content which is great to satisfy thirst along with providing all the necessary vitamins and minerals. The water content present in cucumbers is great for hydration. Along with quenching thirst, this fruit provides dietary fibre and is good for irritable bowel syndrome and diabetic patients.
It has 30 kcal/100g. Some of the benefits of watermelon rind include a healthy heart, provide hydration and regulation of blood pressure. Additionally, watermelon seeds also have many health benefits starting from the prevention of anaemia to immune-boosting properties. The water content present in watermelon and vitamins A, B6, C along with lycopene act as an immune-boosting food.
It provides 52 kcal/100g. Apple contains a good amount of antioxidants, vitamin C and fibres. Apple's high fibre content helps in weight loss and it also helps to boost cognitive performance. Quercetin, an antioxidant present in apples, is also associated with lowering the risk of type 2 Diabetes.
It contains 34 kcal/100g. Its vitamin A content improves vision. Calcium, Phosphorus, vitamin K content is essential for healthy bone development. Iron and folic acid help to prevent anaemia. Kaempferol, a flavonoid present in broccoli, has anti-inflammatory properties. Broccoli is also rich in Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) which is crucial for brain growth and development.
It contains about 17 kcal/100g. It is packed with many important vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. This has high fibre content and a low-calorie count. Fibre plays an important role in digestion. Zeaxanthin, present in Zucchini, plays an important role in preventing oxidative stress and improves eye health.
It provides about 15 kcal/100g. Its vitamin C, Calcium, vitamin K, vitamin A content helps in boosting immunity. The fibre content of lettuce helps in weight loss. It is also associated with a healthy heart and maintaining eye health.
Are There Any Side Effects?
There is no evidence that eating negative calorie foods leads to side effects. However, directly eating low amounts of calories is not advised if you are not under the supervision of a dietician. The calorie requirement to reduce weight is individualised. The requirement varies depending on the person's height, weight, BMI, BMR, and physical activity.
These foods can be added to our daily diet as snacks or cooking ingredients. Cucumber, tomatoes, carrots and lettuce can be used in various salads. Berries, apple or watermelon fruit can be used as a mid-morning or evening snack. Broccoli, zucchini or lettuce can be used in various preparations during cooking.
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London, Aug 5 (IANS) An artificial pancreas could soon help people living with Type-2 diabetes and who also require kidney dialysis.Tests led by the University of Cambridge and Inselspital, University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, show that the device can help patients safely and effectively manage their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of low blood sugar levels.Researchers had previously developed an artificial pancreas with the aim of replacing insulin injections for patients living with Type-1 diabetes. The study, published in the journal Nature Medicine, showed the artificial pancreas is powered by software in the user's smartphone that sends a signal to an insulin pump to adjust the level of insulin the patient receives. A glucose monitor measures the patient's blood sugar levels and sends these back to the smartphone to enable it to make further adjustments.Unlike the artificial pancreas being used for type 1 diabetes, the new version is a fully closed loop system whereas patients with Type-1 diabetes need to tell their artificial pancreas that they are about to eat to allow adjustment of insulin. For example, with this new version they can leave the device to function entirely automatically."Patients living with type 2 diabetes and kidney failure are a particularly vulnerable group and managing their condition --trying to prevent potentially dangerous highs or lows of blood sugar levels -- can be a challenge. There's a real unmet need for new approaches to help them manage their condition safely and effectively," said Dr Charlotte Boughton from the Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science at Cambridge.The team recruited 26 patients requiring dialysis between October 2019 and November 2020. Thirteen participants were randomised to receive the artificial pancreas first and 13 to receive standard insulin therapy first. The researchers compared how long patients spent in the target blood sugar range (5.6 to 10.0mmol/L) over a 20 day period as outpatients.Mean blood sugar levels were lower with the artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas reduced the amount of time patients spent with potentially dangerously low blood sugar levels, or 'hypos'.The team is currently trialing the artificial pancreas for outpatient use in people living with Type 2 diabetes who do not need dialysis and exploring the system in complex medical situations such as perioperative care."The artificial pancreas has the potential to become a key feature of integrated personalised care for people with complex medical needs," said Dr Lia Bally, who co-led the study in Bern.--IANSrvt/bg
A new study has shown that eating millets reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and helps manage blood glucose levels in people with diabetes.
The study indicates the potential to design appropriate meals with millets for diabetic and pre-diabetic people as well as for non-diabetic people as a preventive approach.
Drawing on research from 11 countries, the study published in Frontiers in Nutrition shows that diabetic people who consumed millets as part of their daily diet saw their blood glucose levels drop 12-15% (fasting and post-meal), and blood glucose levels went from diabetic to pre-diabetes levels.
The HbA1c (blood glucose bound to hemoglobin) levels lowered on average 17% for pre-diabetic individuals, and the levels went from prediabetic to normal status. These findings affirm that eating millets can lead to a better glycemic response.
The authors reviewed 80 published studies of which 65 were eligible for a meta-analysis involving about 1,000 human subjects, making this analysis the largest systematic review on the topic till date, said International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
"No one knew there were so many scientific studies undertaken on millets' effect on diabetes. These benefits were often contested, and this systematic review of the studies published in scientific journals has proven that millets keep blood glucose levels in check, reducing the risk of diabetes, and has shown just how well these smart foods do it," said Dr. S Anitha, the study's lead author and a senior nutrition scientist at International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
"Diabetes contributed to very high disease burden from 1990-2016 in India. Diabetes-related health expenditure was over $7 million. There is no easy solution, and it requires a lifestyle change, and diet is a very important part of this. This study provides one part of the solution useful for individuals and governments. How we use this and implement it into programs needs careful planning," said Hemalatha, Director, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN).
Raj Bhandari, one of the study's authors and a representative on the Indian National Technical Board of Nutrition, noted that additional attention to our health has been accelerated due to Covid-19 and diabetics are even more vulnerable to the virus. "Our diets play a critical role and if we could bring millets back as a major part of our diet, we would not only help in controlling diabetes, but we would also be adding important nutrients to our plate."
According to the International Diabetes Association, diabetes is increasing in all regions of the world. India, China and the US have the highest numbers of people with diabetes. Africa has the largest forecasted increase of 143% from 2019 to 2045, the Middle East and North Africa 96% and South East Asia 74%. The authors urge the diversification of staples with millets to keep diabetes in check, especially across Asia and Africa.
Strengthening the case for returning millets as staples, the study found that millets have a low average glycemic index (GI) of 52.7, about 30% lower glycemic index (GI) than milled rice and refined wheat, and about 14-37 GI points lower compared to maize. All 11 types of millets studied were either low (<55) or medium gi (55-69), gi being an indicator of how much and how soon a food increases blood sugar level. the review concluded that even after boiling, baking and steaming (most common ways of cooking grains) millets had lower gi than rice, wheat and maize.
"Millets are traditional foods consumed in India. Use of locally available millets as dietary diversification coupled with good lifestyle modifications would help reduce not only Type II diabetes but also gestational diabetes.," said study co-author Professor Kowsalya Subramaniam, (Food and Science Nutrition), Registrar at Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women (deemed to be university) in Tamil Nadu.
"The global health crisis of undernutrition and over-nutrition coexisting is a sign that our food systems need fixing. Greater diversity both on-farm and on-plate is the key to transforming food systems. On-farm diversity is a risk mitigating strategy for farmers in the face of climate change while on-plate diversity helps counter lifestyle diseases such as diabetes. Millets are part of the solution to mitigate the challenges associated with malnutrition, human health, natural resource degradation, and climate change. Trans-disciplinary research involving multiple stakeholders is required to create resilient, sustainable and nutritious food systems," said Dr. Jacqueline Hughes, Director General ICRISAT.
This study is first in a series of studies that has been worked on for the last four years as a part of the Smart Food initiative led by ICRISAT that will be progressively released in 2021. Included are systematic reviews with meta-analyses of the impacts of millets on: diabetes, anaemia and iron requirements, cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and calcium deficiencies as well as a review on zinc levels.
As part of this, ICRISAT and the Institute for Food Nutrition and Health at the University of Reading have formed a strategic partnership to research and promote the Smart Food vision of making our diets healthier, more sustainable on the environment and good for those who produce it," explained Joanna Kane-Potaka, a co-author from ICRISAT and Executive Director of the Smart Food initiative. (agency)
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Sunscreen is your best friend, whether you're stepping out shopping or going about your work and chores, it protects your skin from harmful UVA/UVB rays and pollution that cause damage in any and every season.
Not only outdoors, sunscreens plays a crucial role in protecting your skin while you are indoors from UVA rays which enter through standard glass windows and can penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB rays, becoming a contributing factor to photo-aging -- which are changes seen as dark spots, wrinkles, and leathery textured skin.
Broadly there are four types of skin and to choose the best sunscreen it's very important to know your skin type. This can be done by washing your face with the help of gentle cleanser. This will wash away the makeup, pollutants and other dirt. Wait for an hour and make sure that you do not touch your face. Your skin should return to its natural state which will help to determine the type of your skin. Take a tissue paper and dab your face. The area consisting of your forehead and nose must be the place where you concentrate.
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Normal Skin: If your skin shows no oil or no flaking and it feels smooth and supple, you have a normal skin type.
Oily Skin: If there is lots of grease on the tissue paper, then you have an oily skin type. It is common that you might have a shine and large pores.
Dry Skin: If the tissue paper is accompanied by lots of flakes and dead skin, then your skin is dry. You need to consider moisturizing your skin.
Combination: Any combination of the above-mentioned skin types is a combination skin type. This is very common skin type. Your skin is generally oily in the forehead and nose area and dry elsewhere.
Now that you know your skin type, it's easy to choose the perfect SPF Sunscreen for yourself. If you have dry skin, look for a sunscreen with a moisturiser or sunscreens that contain hydrating ingredients (ceramides or hyaluronic acid).
If you have oily skin type, creamy sunscreens can usually feel sticky and heavy. Opt-in for water-based or a lightweight formula sunscreen which is considered ideal for oily skin type.
If you're blessed with normal, uncomplicated skin, your choice is easy. Any high-quality sunscreen will work for you, whether spray, cream or stick.
Along with the SPF factor it is equally important to look at the PA factor. SPF is a grade used to rate the level of UVB protection. The higher the number, the higher the UVB protection.
PA is a grade used to rate the level of UVA protection. The more "+" symbols, the higher the UVA protection.
Typical sunscreens offer protection from mostly UVB Rays. UVB Rays burn your skin while UVA rays cause skin aging and age spots when your skin is overexposed. A broad spectrum sunscreen or a full spectrum sunscreen protects you from both.
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New York, April 27 (IANS) While the ongoing Covid pandemic has reportedly affected children much less than adults, a new study shows that an increasing number of children with Type-2 diabetes have faced severe complications.There has been a surge of children with life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) -- a severe complication of Type-2 diabetes -- during the Covid pandemic, revealed the study from Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA)."DKA happens when insulin levels in the blood drop too low for too long," said lead author Lily Chao, Interim Medical Diabetes Director at CHLA."Insulin helps the body utilise glucose. So when there's not enough insulin, the body starts breaking down fat as a source of energy," she added.This process, she said, causes dangerously high levels of acids in the blood. If untreated, this can lead to cerebral oedema, coma, or even death. "Kids are coming in with dehydration and DKA. But DKA is preventable and reversible if we treat it early and appropriately," Chao noted.While cases of DKA in children was very few, the doctor at CHLA began seeing a spike in cases since March 2020."There is definitely a link between Covid-19 and diabetes," said Senta Georgia, an investigator in The Saban Research Institute of CHLA."We don't know whether SARS-CoV-2 infects insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. There are some reports of a link between Covid-19 and diabetes in adults, but no paediatric studies have been published to date," Georgia added.--IANSrvt/vd