अत्यधिक संक्रमित कोरोना डेल्टा वेरिएंट उन व्यक्तियों को भी संक्रमित कर सकता है, जिन्हें वायरस के खिलाफ पूरी तरह से टीका लगाया गया है। ये जानकारी एक अध्ययन से सामने आई है। ये अध्ययन भारतीय सार्स-सीओवी-2 जीनोमिक्स कंसोर्टियम (आईएनएसएसीओजी), वैज्ञानिक और औद्योगिक अनुसंधान परिषद (सीएसआईआर) और दिल्ली के दो अस्पतालों में राष्ट्रीय रोग नियंत्रण केंद्र ने आयोजित किया गया था।
अध्यन में यह पता चला कि टीकाकरण अस्पताल में भर्ती होने और संक्रमण की गंभीरता से बचाता है लेकिन बहुत कमजोर व्यक्तियों को यह संक्रमित कर सकता है।
आईएनएसएसीओजी और सीएसआईआर के शोधकर्ताओं ने कम्प्यूटेशनल दृष्टिकोण का उपयोग करते हुए महामारी विज्ञान और वायरस जीनोम अनुक्रम डेटा से एक संभावित संचरण नेटवर्क का निर्माण करके स्वास्थ्य कार्यकर्ताओं के बीच 113 संक्रमण पर डेटा का विश्लेषण किया।
अध्ययन ने पूरी तरह से टीकाकरण वाले लोगों के बीच भी संक्रमण नियंत्रण उपायों की आवश्यकता पर जोर है।
इसने उन व्यक्तियों के बीच संभावित वायरस संचरण की उच्च संभावना के बारे में भी बताया, जिन्होंने टीकों की दोनों खुराक प्राप्त की है।
इस बीच, आईएनएसएसीओजी ने अपने आखिरी बुलेटिन में कहा कि डेल्टा स्ट्रेन भारत में चिंता का कारण (वीओसी) बना हुआ है।
"डेल्टा (बी.1.617.2 और एवाई.एक्स) भारत में मुख्य वीओसी बना हुआ है। कोई नया वीओआई या वीओसी नोट नहीं किया गया है और डेल्टा के अलावा अन्य वीओसी और वीओआई अब भारत से डेटा अनुक्रमित नहीं हैं।"
यह भी पढ़े► श्वेत रक्त कोशिकाएं कोविड की गंभीरता को दर्शाती है - शोध
While wearing double masks, which helps create a strong barrier against Covid-19 infection spread via airborne viral particles, has become the new normal, prolonged wearing of masks can develop hydration issues or other nagging breathing troubles, health experts said on Wednesday.
There has been enough evidence through the pandemic to show the importance of masks for effective pandemic control. At the start of the pandemic, it was seen that countries (primarily Asian nations) which enforced early masking had lesser mortality rates as compared to countries in the West where compulsory mask wearing was introduced quite late.
"Prolonged mask wearing can be associated with certain problems the most common being headaches, dehydration, acne and difficulty in breathing," Radhika Banka, Consultant Pulmonologist at P.D. Hinduja Hospital & MRC, Mumbai, told IANS.
Breathing issues are "usually seen in mouth breathers and in people with underlying respiratory problems such as COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)", she added.
According to Ravi Shekhar Jha, Additional Director and HOD, Pulmonology, at Fortis Escorts Hospital, Faridabad, wearing double mask for long hours can also lead to dryness.
"It is because natural humidification of nasal mucosa gets impaired," Jha said.
There are various masks available in the market, including cloth masks, surgical masks and respirators such as N-95s.
The cloth mask has the least protection and the US Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends wearing a disposable surgical mask along with a cloth mask for additional protection. For surgical masks, the knotted technique (that is knotting the ear loops to provide better fit and prevent leakage from the sides) is recommended.
But with full vaccination rolled out in most countries, are double masks still required?
"Even after double dose vaccination, people can get breakthrough infections and can still be asymptomatic carriers and spread the infection. Hence masking is important even after double vaccination," Banka said.
The health experts stated that for people living in India, double masks become more important as vaccination of children has not yet begun in the country, and asymptomatic transmission is the highest from children. Added to this is a high population density, where social distancing is not practically possible in many cases.
Most of the countries which have made masks voluntary are those in the West with low population density, where social distancing is feasible. These countries have managed to vaccinate more than 80 per cent of their population with two doses. Also, masks in these countries are still recommended in enclosed spaces, public transports, healthcare facilities etc.
"With only 48 per cent of our population being vaccinated with one dose and 25 per cent being vaccinated with two doses, I do not think India can yet take the risk of removing the mandatory use of masks," Banka said.
However, according to Jha, "A single mask, if worn properly, is sufficient."
"People who wear double masks, have this tendency of adjusting their masks repeatedly due to breathing issues, and that way the whole purpose of wearing a mask is defeated," he said.
Jha added that for someone like a healthcare worker, who is in an area with high concentration of Covid viral droplets, an N-95 mask should be worn all the time. For other situations, a normal surgical mask (single) is sufficient.
"We need to ensure that masks are worn properly, with proper seal at nose. Improperly worn masks are more dangerous. It is also important to keep in mind that a mask alone may not protect. One needs to follow hand hygiene as well as maintain social distancing," Jha advised.
Although several countries have loosened mask restrictions citing vaccine efficacy, various studies and health experts have stressed on the need for continuing wearing masks, even after being fully vaccinated, including booster shots; and following other protective measures such as physical distancing and handwashing.
A recent study led by researchers from the Monash University and the University of Edinburgh analysed more than 30 studies from around the world and found a statistically significant 53 per cent reduction in the incidence of Covid with mask wearing, and 25 per cent reduction with physical distancing. Handwashing also indicated a substantial 53 per cent reduction in Covid incidence.
Most people are able to wear masks fairly well for a few hours, but if your job requires you to wear masks for a prolonged period, it is essential to take adequate breaks to hydrate oneself and prevent any skin problems, Banka suggested. (Agency)
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न्यूयॉर्क| वैज्ञानिकों ने पाया है कि विटामिन-डी प्रतिरक्षा कोशिकाओं के कारण होने वाली सूजन को कम करने का काम करता है, जो गंभीर कोविड-19 के दौरान प्रतिक्रियाओं के लिए प्रासंगिक हो सकता है। अध्ययन में एक तंत्र प्रदर्शित किया गया, जिसके द्वारा विटामिन-डी, टी कोशिकाओं के कारण होने वाली सूजन को कम करता है। ये प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली की महत्वपूर्ण कोशिकाएं हैं और कोविड-19 के कारण होने वाले संक्रमण के प्रति प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया के हिस्से के रूप में निहित हैं।
पर्डयू विश्वविद्यालय के नेतृत्व में टीम ने कोविड संक्रमित आठ लोगों के फेफड़ों की व्यक्तिगत कोशिकाओं का अध्ययन और विश्लेषण किया। उन्होंने पाया कि कोविड वाले लोगों के फेफड़ों की कोशिकाओं में प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया का हिस्सा ओवरड्राइव में जा रहा था, जिससे फेफड़ों की सूजन बढ़ गई।
टीम ने तब जांच की कि वायरस पिछले अध्ययन में फेफड़ों की कोशिकाओं को कैसे प्रभावित करते हैं। साथ ही यह पता लगाया कि वायरस एक जैव रासायनिक मार्ग को ट्रिगर कर सकते हैं, जिसे प्रतिरक्षा पूरक प्रणाली के रूप में जाना जाता है।
पर्डयू विश्वविद्यालय में कंप्यूटर विज्ञान और जैव रसायन विभाग के सहायक प्रोफेसर माजिद काजेमियन ने कहा, सामान्य संक्रमणों में टी कोशिकाओं का एक सबसेट, टी कोशिकाओं का एक सबसेट, प्रो-भड़काऊ चरण से गुजरता है।
प्रो-इंफ्लेमेटरी चरण संक्रमण को साफ करता है, और फिर सिस्टम बंद हो जाता है और एंटी-इंफ्लेमेटरी चरण में चला जाता है। विटामिन-डी टी कोशिकाओं के प्रो-इंफ्लेमेटरी से एंटी-इंफ्लेमेटरी चरण में इस संक्रमण को तेज करने में मदद करता है। (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► भारत के वैक्सीन प्रमाणपत्र को 5 और देशों से मान्यता मिली
Winter is the time to bask in the sun, stroll around the lanes and devour all the great delicacies. While indulging in all these activities, parents should remember that their little ones need more protection during this season. Winter days come with a lot of smog, and when temperatures are really chilly outside. A mask is something that can protect a baby from various environmental hazards and also protect the little nose and mouth from the harsh winds during the winter season.
A mask specially designed for kids: A mask has become a clothing accessory over the last couple of years, and people tend to wear them for longer hours. When buying masks for children, the first thing for parents to understand is that the masks made for adults are not suitable for children. There are masks available on the market which are specifically designed for kids in the age group of 3-6 and for kids in the age group of 7-12 years.
Choose suitable mask material: Always look for a material that is soft enough to not irritate your child's sensitive skin. The ideal mask should have six layers of filtration, and the innermost layer is recommended to be made of soft fabric that is breathable for kids. The ear loops and noseband should be flexible and adjustable in order to fit the child's face properly and provide protection from dust, pollution, and germs.
Breathable factor: The breathable factor of a mask is important for every individual, considering the longer usage span. Children's daily routines are more active when compared to adults; they run, they play, they fight, and they enjoy being outdoors, which increases their breathing level. Thus, it becomes more important for a child to wear masks under which they can breathe properly, encouraging them to wear them for a longer period of time.
Filtration Efficiency: While considering the entire comfort factor, parents must not ignore the filtration capacity of a mask. The pandemic has added to the ongoing pollution hazard, seasonal viruses, dust, pollen, and other harmful particles in the environment, making parents more cautious while selecting the right mask for their babies. It is always important to choose a mask with at least 95 percent filtering efficiency of > 0.3 microns when releasing the child into the outdoors.While you may find many masks on the market mentioning various layers, it's important to check that the mask has layers of melt-blown filters inside to give your child effective protection against germs and pollution.
Colourful masks: The biggest challenge for parents these days is to make sure that their kids are wearing masks all the time. To make this easier, choose a mask with cheerful designs and decorations that the kids can relate to and will encourage them to wear it.
Re-usable masks: Another factor that people consider while choosing a mask is the price. The market has a range of masks that are expensive and can be used only once. The expenses are always on the higher side with a child at home, as a parent always wants the best for their baby. To balance out the budget, it is advisable to choose a re-usable mask that is re-usable at least up to 25 washes without affecting the 95 percent filtration efficiency.
With the spread of smog, parents have become more cautious when it comes to protecting their babies. Every parent knows what is best for their babies, and with a little research and effort, they can never go wrong with their choices. Rajesh Vohra, CEO, Artsana India (Chicco)
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The unprecedented event in the form of a Pandemic has pushed people to work from home. While what seemed like a good break from the traditional 9-5, work from home brought its own challenges. With the increased working hours due to the lack of clear boundary between personal and professional life, work from home did not prove to be a relief like it was supposed to.
According to the CMR study, the average screen time for Indians increased to 25 per cent. And 23 per cent complained about weaker eyesight due to extended work hours. Ayurveda is the ancient Indian science that works on creating a balance and treating the body in a holistic manner. Following are the key Ayurvedic herbs and practices shared by Ritika Krit, Founder, Kamree that one can incorporate in their daily lives to decrease eye strain caused by electronics.
Icing or Sheeta Satmya: Consistent use of electronics produces heat in the eyes and makes eyelids dull and tired. To counter the effects of overwork, soak cotton balls in cool milk or rose water and place it on your eyes for a few minutes. The exercise will give much-awaited relief to the eyes.
Palm Exercise: Palm exercise, known as palming, is an ancient Ayurvedic technique to massage eyes and provide relaxation. Rub your arms together for 10 seconds and place it on your shut eyes in a cupping gesture. Remember not to put pressure on your eyes. Do the techniques 2-3 times as you inhale and exhale slowly. The Ayurvedic exercise provides relief to your eyes and is also helpful for a goodnight's sleep.
Mudras: Mudras are simple hand gestures that are always defined as a healing modality. Most Mudras for better eye vision can be done lying down while breathing normally. Different Mudras have different effects on the body, and when combined with a breathing exercise, they can bring back balance in the body while strengthening all desired parts and healing them holistically.
One of the most common Mudra is Prana Mudra. In order to practice Prana Mudra, keep your spine erect and body relaxed with open palms placed on your lap. Join the tip of your pinky finger to ring the finger to the tip of your thumb and breathe normally for 15 minutes. The Mudra will promote healthy vision and heal irritable eyes.
Herbs for Stronger Eye Vision
Fennel- Rich in Vitamin A and C, fennel is good to strengthen your eye vision. You can either consume it in the form of tea or wash your eyes with fennel water as it cooling for the eyes.
Triphala- Three fruits - Haritaki, Amla, and Bibhitaki make Triphala which balances the energies in the body and is a good source of antioxidants and Vitamin C, which reverses the signs of inflammation and oxidative stress.
The Ginkgo Biloba- Native to China, Ginkgo Biloba is most effective in treating degrading eye vision.
Calendula- Also known as "Pot Marigold," calendula is an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial herb that helps in treating eye conditions such as redness, swelling, mild irritations,
Almonds- The most common ingredient to Indian households, almonds are a good source of Vitamin E, which promotes the growth of healthy tissues and great vision.
Splash water 3-5 times a day to active facial nerves and arteries.
Take a break from electronics during meals.
Practice calmness as anger and frustration can increase the flow of blood, which dilates pupils and causes eye strain. You can also exercise pranayama to bring more peace to your daily life.
Avoid hot water for showers which can cause the imbalance of fire elements in the body. Instead, use lukewarm water whenever necessary.
Wear preventive eyeglasses when using electronics to avoid direct contact with blue light.
Avoid reading or using electronics in a dark room.
Avoid rubbing your eyes harshly. (N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe)
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A team of US researchers are conducting studies to understand whether botanical therapies like medicinal mushrooms and Chinese herbs provide therapeutic benefit in treating acute Covid-19 cases.
According to principal investigator Gordon Saxe, director of research at the Center for Integrative Health in University of California-San Diego, mushrooms were chosen because of their long history of use and recent evidence of immune-enhancing and antiviral effects.
MACH-19 (Mushrooms and Chinese Herbs for Covid-19) is a multi-centre study led by UC San Diego's School of Medicine and UC-Los Angeles, in collaboration with the La Jolla Institute for Immunology.
In a preclinical study published in 2019, mushroom agarikon was found to inhibit viruses, including influenza (H1N1), influenza A (H5N1) and herpes. Saxe said he believes medicinal mushrooms inhibit the viruses' replication, a theory he plans to test against SARS-CoV-2 in a Phase II trial.
"Mushrooms have the advantage that they co-evolved with us. So bacteria, viruses and other fungi prey on mushrooms just like they prey on humans. And mushrooms have developed exquisite defenses against those pests, and we believe they can confer those to us when we eat them," Saxe said.
MACH-19's third ongoing trial measures whether the same medicinal mushrooms, given in capsules at the time of initial Covid vaccination, can increase antibodies and other measures of immune response.
A fourth trial, yet to be launched, will look at whether medicinal mushrooms could provide a similar lift to Covid-19 booster shots as an adjuvant, a substance which enhances immune response.
"Vaccines lead to the production of antibodies that can destroy the virus in the blood," Saxe said.
"Mushrooms may not only increase the number of these antibodies, but also enhance T-cell immunity against virally infected cells. Further, because mushrooms bind to receptors on human immune cells, they can modulate our immunity -- boosting it in some ways and calming it down in others. And this property of mushrooms may also reduce vaccine-related side effects.
Natural therapeutics have been used for centuries to treat infectious diseases, according to Saxe, who noted that herbs helped Chinese doctors manage 300 recorded epidemics, while the Greek pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides prescribed agarikon to treat pulmonary infections 2,300 years ago.
The three trials, under MACH-19 of which two are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, are currently recruiting for between 66 and 80 patients who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and who are quarantined at home with mild to moderate symptoms.AInitial safety data from the trials are expected by the end of this year, with efficacy data ready within a year.
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