London, March 25 (IANS): A team of scientists have for the first time demonstrated that plastic particles from our day-to-day lives such as water bottles, grocery bags, toys and disposable cutlery, among others, can end up in our bloodstream in detectable levels.
The research, published in the scientific journal Environment International, shows that miniscule pieces of plastic from our living environment are absorbed into the human bloodstream.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene, and polymers of styrene were the most common types of plastic found in the blood samples, followed by poly(methyl methacrylate). Polypropylene was also analysed but the concentrations were too low for an accurate measurement.
PET is commonly found in soda and water bottles; containers; polyethylene in bottles for milk and household cleaners; blow-extruded grocery bags, caps, and toys while polymers of styrene are found in disposable cutlery, plastic models, CD's and DVD cases.
"We have now proven that our bloodstream, our river of life as it were, has plastic in it," said ecotoxicologist Heather Leslie from Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
The team developed an analytic method for establishing the trace level of micro and nanoplastic particles in human blood. The study included 22 participants, whose blood was examined for the presence of five different polymers, the building blocks of plastic.
Three-quarters of the test subjects appeared to have plastics in their blood, the team said.
While earlier indicators for this came from laboratory experiments, the new research shows that people absorb microplastics from their environment in their everyday lives and that the amounts are measurable in their blood.
The overall concentration of plastic particles in the blood of the 22 donors amounted to an average of 1.6 microgram/millilitre (ug/ml), which is comparable to a teaspoon of plastic in 1,000 lts of water (10 large bathtubs).
A quarter of the tested donors had no detectable quantities of plastic particles of any type in their blood.
"This dataset is the first of its kind and must be expanded to gain insight into how widespread plastic pollution is in the bodies of humans, and how harmful that may be. With this insight we can determine whether exposure to plastic particles pose threat to public health," said analytical chemist Marja Lamoree from the varsity.
The team now wants to address how easy it is for these particles to move from the bloodstream into tissues such as in organs like the brain. (agency)
Read More► Why Some Respiratory Infections Persist Despite Proper Treatments
Jerusalem: Pregnant women's exposure to air pollution has been identified as one possible factor for low-birth-weight in babies, which can further lead to poor health outcomes, researchers have shown.
The study, published in the journal Environmental Research, also revealed that mothers who are underweight and come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were more exposed to the possibility of being affected by air pollution.
Further, the study found that the association with air pollution was stronger among female babies and first births - a fact that is thought to be due to a biological mechanism that is yet to be identified.
"It is now clear that governments need to set up the infrastructure to integrate environmental and health data at the personal level," said Professor Hagai Levine of the Hebrew University (HU)-Hadassah Braun School of Public Health.
The team looked at the link between air pollutant PM2.5 and the birth weight of 3,80,000 singleton babies born to mothers all over in Israel between 2004-2015.
Israel, a country with the highest fertility rate among countries under OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and high levels of the air pollutant PM2.5, made it an ideal location to look for an association between low birth weight and poor air quality.
The team used personal, anonymised data and detailed high-resolution pollutant data to produce more accurate statistical analysis.
The model included siblings, and it enabled the estimation of the variance in low birth weight to be accounted for by variances between different mothers, leading to more accurate estimates.
The data used by the research team included: personal anonymised data on the mothers, including the area where they lived and the weight of their babies at birth; and daily air pollutant concentration over each square kilometre of Israel, derived from satellite data.
The study clearly showed the association between the level of the air pollutant PM2.5 and low birth weight.
The association of air pollutants with low birth weight raises the question of whether the governments should take the impact on the developing baby into account and increase its efforts to reduce pollution. (agency)
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यरूशलेम: शोधकर्ताओं ने बताया है कि गर्भवती महिलाओं पर वायु प्रदूषण का जोखिम उनके शिशुओं वजन पर असर डालता है, जो आगे चलकर खराब स्वास्थ्य परिणामों को जन्म दे सकता है।
पर्यावरण अनुसंधान पत्रिका में प्रकाशित अध्ययन में यह भी पता चला है कि कम वजन वाली और निम्न सामाजिक आर्थिक पृष्ठभूमि से आने वाली माताओं को वायु प्रदूषण से प्रभावित होने की संभावना अधिक थी।
हिब्रू विश्वविद्यालय (एचयू)-हदासाह ब्रौन स्कूल ऑफ पब्लिक हेल्थ के प्रोफेसर हागई लेविन ने कहा कि यह अब स्पष्ट है कि सरकारों को व्यक्तिगत स्तर पर पर्यावरण और स्वास्थ्य डेटा को एकीकृत करने के लिए बुनियादी ढांचे को स्थापित करने की आवश्यकता है।
टीम ने वायु प्रदूषक पीएम 2.5 और 2004-2015 के बीच पूरे इजराइल में पैदा हुए 3,80,000 सिंगलटन शिशुओं के जन्म के वजन के बीच संबंध को देखा।
टीम ने अधिक सटीक सांख्यिकीय विश्लेषण तैयार करने के लिए व्यक्तिगत, अज्ञात डेटा और विस्तृत उच्च-रिजॉल्यूशन प्रदूषक डेटा का उपयोग किया (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► बड़ों की तुलना में बच्चों में गाते और बोलते समय कम श्वास कणों का प्रवाह
London: Treating babies with antibiotics in the first week of life is linked to a decrease in healthy bacteria necessary, among others, to digest milk and an increase in antimicrobial resistance, research suggests.
According to experts, clinicians should consider using antibiotics in a way that causes least harm to the newborns microbiome the community of microbes that live in our body.
Under current guidelines, antibiotics directed at a wide range of bacteria are prescribed to four to 10 per cent of all newborns for suspected infections.
However, experts say that in most cases the antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily as only a small proportion of those who receive the drugs are eventually diagnosed with an infection.
This overprescription is to ensure early treatment for those who are ultimately found to have an infection as any delay may quickly become life-threatening.
The study, published in Nature Communications, found a change in 251 of 695 different bacteria after treatment, changing the balance between good and bad bacteria in favour of more potentially harmful microbes.
Though gradually recovering over time, the changes to the microbiome and to antimicrobial resistance genes persisted for at least 12 months and did not improve with breastfeeding, which is known to help a baby's immune system.
"We were surprised with the magnitude and duration of the effects of broad spectrum antibiotics on the infants' microbiome when compared to effects of those same antibiotics on adults' microbiota," said lead author Professor Debby Bogaert, Chair of Paediatric Medicine at the University of Edinburgh.
"This is likely because the antibiotic treatment is given at a time that infants have just received their first microbes from their mother and have not yet developed a resilient microbiome,"Bogaert added.
Researchers conducted a clinical trial involving 227 babies to analyse how antibiotics affect a newborn's microbiome.
The samples were analysed for the microbes that made up their newly forming microbiome and for bacterial genes related to antimicrobial resistance.
For newborns that had been prescribed antibiotics, there was found to be a significant decrease in the levels of different Bifidobacterium species compared with babies who had no antibiotic treatment.
These microbes aid in the digestion of human breast milk and promote gut health, while also supporting the immune defence against infection.
The team also found an increase in potentially disease-causing bacteria and in the number and abundance of genes related to antimicrobial resistance in the group that received antibiotics.
Further, of the three antibiotic treatment regimens tested, the combination of penicillin and gentamicin, was found to have the least detrimental effect on a baby's gut microbiome and the number of antimicrobial resistance genes that emerge. (Agency)
Read More► Infant Deaths From Respiratory Virus Much Higher Than Thought: Study
न्यूयार्क- अमेरिकी वैज्ञानिकों ने एक शोध में पता लगाया है कि गर्भावस्था के दौरोना कोरोना वैक्सीन लेने वाली महिलाओं के नवजात शिशुओं में काफी लंबे समय तक रहने वाली एंटीबॉडीज देखी गई हैं जो बिना वैक्सीन लगवाने वाली या कोरोना संक्रमित महिलाओं के जन्में नवजात शिशुओं की तुलना में ज्यादा हैं।
मैसाच्यूसेट्स जनरल अस्पताल में किए गए शोध में पाया गया है कि जिन महिलाओं ने गर्भावस्था में कोरोना वैक्सीन लगवाई थी उनमें प्रसव के समय शरीर में तथा गर्भनाल में एंटीबाडीज की मात्रा कोविड संक्रमित माताओं की तुलना में काफी अधिक पाई गई थी।
वैक्सीन लेने वाली महिलाओं के 98 प्रतिशत नवजात शिशुओं (49 में से 48 में ) दो माह बाद सुरक्षाžमक एंटीबॉडीज-इम्युनोग्लोबुलिन जी का स्तर बहुत अधिक देखा गया था।
छह महीनों में, शोधकर्ताओं ने टीकाकृत माताओं के उन 28 शिशुओं की जांच में पाया कि 57 प्रतिशत (28 में से 16) में अभी भी काफी मात्रा में आईजीजी था। इसकी तुलना में कोविड संकमित माताओं से पैदा हुए 12 में से एक में ही इस तरह के एंटीबाडीज पाए गए थे।
एमजीएच में मातृ-भ्रूण चिकित्सा विशेषज्ञ एंड्रिया एडलो ने कहा, हालांकि यह अभी भी स्पष्ट नहीं है कि एक शिशु को कोविड से पूरी तरह से बचाने के लिए एंटीबाडीज को कितना अधिक होना चाहिए, लेकिन हम जानते हैं कि आईजीजी का बढ़ा हुआ स्तर गंभीर बीमारी से सुरक्षा के साथ संबंधित है।
एडलो ने कहा, यहां एंटीबॉडी प्रतिक्रिया दिखाती है कि टीकाकरण न केवल माताओं के लिए स्थायी सुरक्षा प्रदान करता है बल्कि एंटीबॉडी कम से कम छह महीने की उम्र तक अधिकांश शिशुओं में बनी रहती है।
द जर्नल ऑफ द अमेरिकन मेडिकल एसोसिएशन (जेएएमए) में प्रकाशित अध्ययन में उन महिलाओं को शामिल किया गया था जिन्हें एमआरएनए वैक्सीन के दो टीके लगाए गए थे या 20 से 32 सप्ताह के गर्भ के दौरान कोरोना संक्रमित थी । कई अध्ययनों से पता चला है कि गर्भवती महिलाओं को कोविड से गंभीर जटिलताएं होने का अत्यधिक जोखिम होता है।
उताह विश्वविद्यालय में प्रसूति रोग विशेषज्ञों के नेतृत्व में एक हालिया अध्ययन से पता चला है कि कोविड से संक्रमित गर्भवती महिलाओं में गंभीर जटिलताएं विकसित होने या गर्भावस्था के दौरान मरने की आशंका उन महिलाओें की तुलना में लगभग 40 प्रतिशत अधिक होती है जो वायरस से संक्रमित नहीं होती हैं।
यूएस नेशनल इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ हेल्थ के नेतृत्व में किए गए एक अन्य अध्ययन से पता चला है कि मध्यम से गंभीर कोविड संक्रमण वाली गर्भवती महिलाओं में सिजेरियन डिलीवरी होने, समय से पहले प्रसव, जन्म के समय मरने या गर्भावस्था के उच्च रक्तचाप से ग्रस्त विकारों से गंभीर बीमारी से ग्रसित होने का जोखिम ज्यादा देखा गया है।
एमजीएच, एमआईटी और हार्वर्ड के रैगन इंस्टीट्यूट के गैलिट ऑल्टर के अनुसार, शिशुओं के लिए कोविड टीकों के अंतराल को देखते हुए ऐसी माताओं को टीकाकरण के लिए प्रेरित करना चाहिए और यहां तक कि गर्भावस्था के दौरान अपने बच्चों की सुरक्षा के लिए उन्हें बूस्टर डोज के लिए भी प्रोत्साहित करना चाहिए। (एजेंसी)
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The winter comes with its own set of hassles. New moms have to be careful because they have to take care of themselves and their babies. It becomes imperative to protect babies from the harsh season.
The immune system of newborn babies is developing, which makes them susceptible to respiratory infections. But, you can take preventive measures to keep your child warm and safe. Newborn babies need extra care until their immune system becomes stronger to protect their bodies from the harmful effects of viruses and bacteria that usually become more active in the winter season. A drop in the temperature can aggravate different processes in the body, therefore, moms need to take extra care of newborn babies during winters.
New moms can follow the given tips to take care of their little ones and protect them from the harmful effects of harsh winds blowing outside.
Keep The Temperature Warm in The Baby's Room
Use a portable heater in the baby's room to keep the temperature warm. The air becomes dry due to the excessive use of a heater. Therefore, keeping a humidifier to balance the moisture levels.
The baby's skin is very sensitive and the harsh, dry, and cold air can make the skin dry. Therefore, apply a good moisturizer to keep it soft and smooth. Choose a moisturizer made of milk cream and butter, especially for children. This will keep the skin of your baby soft.
Massage is important to keep your baby's skin soft and healthy. Massage helps to improve the blood circulation in the body that helps in boosting strength. Use a natural oil to massage the body of your child. Make sure the room is warm where you massage the baby.
Avoid Using Heavy Blankets
You can comfort your baby by laying a light blanket to keep your baby warm. Avoid using a heavy blanket to cover your baby during winters because your baby would not be able to move his arms and legs while sleeping. In this process, your baby may pull it up on its face and this can cause respiratory distress. Thus, use a light blanket and keep the room temperature optimum.
Dress Your Baby Comfortably
Choose comfortable dressing for your baby. Avoid wrapping your baby in thick sweaters, gloves, and socks. This will restrict its movement and he/she will become irritable. Choose clothes depending on the room temperature. The clothes should cover his/her baby but should not restrict movement. You can use light gloves and socks to cover your hands and feet to keep your baby warm at night.
Breastfeeding is the most important activity that can keep your baby healthy. Breast milk consists of required nutrients and antibodies that will enhance the immune system of your baby and will protect him/her against diseases. During breastfeeding your baby will feel warm and cosy that will also give him comfort.
Maintain Proper Hygiene
Mothers should be careful when handling newborn babies in winters. You will be the first point of contact for your baby. Therefore, make sure you keep yourself clean and healthy. Wash your hands before handling your baby. Germs can easily enter your baby's body through your dirty hands. Therefore, make sure you wash your hands or sanitize them before attending to your baby. Also, ask visitors to wash their hands.
Take Care Outdoors
If you want to take your child outdoors make sure it is not freezing temperature. Take your child out for fresh air only if the temperature is not too cold and remember to cover your baby properly before taking them out. Taking your baby out will help to give fresh air and will improve their health.
Common Issues That May Arise in Newborn Babies During Winters
Winter brings flu and other viruses that can easily spread and affect anyone. Common issues that may arise in newborn babies during winters include the following:
Parents can take care of their newborn babies from various diseases that may affect them in the winters in the following ways:
If your baby suffers during the winter season, you should consult a paediatrician.
You can give a homemade solution if your baby suffers from a cold. Check with the doctor and you can only give a saline solution or nasal drops.
Keep your baby well hydrated. Keep breastfeeding your baby and also give water if necessary.
Cuddle your baby lovingly and give him warmth along with other precautions.
In the first winter, you can take preventive measures to take care of your little ones and keep them safe. Maintain proper hygiene and keep your house warm. Avoid visitors if your child is not feeling well.
How often to give a bath to your baby in winter?
It is not necessary to give a bath to your baby every day. You can bathe your baby after 2-3 days in winter. You can sponge bathe your newborn every other day in winter.
Check the temperature of the room before giving a bath to your baby. The room temperature should be warm and comfortable for your baby.
Check the temperature of the water. Make sure the water is not too hot or cold. The temperature of the water should be right for the body of your baby. Check the temperature by touching the water with your elbow or wrist.
Use mild soap and shampoo to bathe your baby in winter. Also, apply oil and moisturizer to the skin to keep it soft and prevent skin allergies. (Dr Anil Batra, Director, Pedeatrics, Madhukar Rainbow Hospital)
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