Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
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Snoring can be frustrating and annoying, especially for those who sleep with a snorer. The National Sleep Foundation reports that one in three men and four women snore every night.
Though snoring is often overlooked as a minor issue, it can occur due to various reasons requiring immediate attention. Obesity or being overweight is one of the leading causes of snoring. Snoring accompanied by irregular breathing is a sign of cardiovascular disease risk. Sleep apnoea can be another condition that increases the chances of snoring. Sleep apnoea is a sleep disorder in which the breathing repeatedly stops and resumes again. Fortunately, plenty of remedies are available to treat snoring naturally without using over-the-counter (OTC) drugs.
Obesity or Excess Weight
For those who have started snoring after gaining weight, shedding some extra pounds can be quite helpful. Obese people tend to have excess tissue and fat in the neck region, which can reduce the airway size and elevate the risk of airway collapse. Studies have proved that weight reduction can eliminate the frequency of snoring with increased weight losses causing near to complete elimination of snoring.
Snoring accelerates when people lie in the supine position or on their backs. When someone lies down on the back, the tissues surrounding the airway are pulled down by gravity, making it narrow. Research and studies on snorers have revealed that the intensity and frequency of snoring reduce considerably when they lie on their sides.
Blocked Nasal Passages
Snoring can also be prevented by keeping the nasal passages open. When the nose is clogged or blocked, air moves in much faster, leading to snoring. Hot oil massages or nasal oil drops can open the blockages in the nose. Also, a hot shower before bed can be quite beneficial as the moisture opens the nasal passages and reduces the chances of snoring.
Staying hydrated is crucial not only to avoid snoring but also to maintain overall health and well-being. When the body is dehydrated, secretions in the nose and soft palate becomes stickier. This can obstruct the proper flow of air and cause snoring. For men, it is recommended to consume at least 3-4 litres of fluid every day, while women must consume 2-3 litres of fluids daily.
Smoking and Alcohol
Researchers believe that snoring in smokers can occur because of oedema and upper airway inflammation. While it takes time to show the effects but quitting smoking can significantly lessen the chances of snoring. Alcohol is another substance that relaxes the muscles around the airway, increasing the likelihood to snore among drinkers. Therefore, it is often recommended not to indulge in drinking in the hours leading to bedtime.
The tips mentioned above can bring positive results if tried daily. It is important to try them all to find the ideal remedy that helps.
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Hyderabad, Aug 18 (IANS) The consumption of millets can reduce total cholesterol, triacylglycerols (commonly known as triglycerides), and BMI, according to a new study analysing the data of 19 studies with nearly 900 people.
The study was undertaken by five organisations and led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
The results, published in Frontiers in Nutrition, brings critically needed scientific backing to the efforts to popularise and return millets to diets, especially as staples, to combat the growing prevalence of obesity and being overweight in children, adolescents, and adults.
The study showed that consuming millets reduced total cholesterol by 8 per cent, lowering it from high to normal levels in the people studied. There was nearly a 10 per cent decrease in low and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (commonly viewed as 'bad cholesterol') and triacylglycerol levels in blood. Through these reductions, the levels went from above normal to normal range. In addition, consuming millets decreased blood pressure with the diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number in the BP reading) decreasing by 5 per cent.
"We were very surprised how many studies on humans had already been undertaken on the impact of millets on elements that impact cardiovascular diseases,and this is the very first time anyone has collated all these studies and analysed their data to test the significance of the impact. We used a meta-analysis, and results came out very strongly to show significant positive impact on risk factors for cardiovascular disease," study's lead author and senior nutritionist at the ICRISAT, Dr S. Anitha said.
The study also showed that consuming millets reduced BMI by 7 per cent in people who were overweight and obese, (from 28.5 (+/-2.4) to 26.7 (+/-1.8) kg/m2), showing the possibility of returning to a normal BMI (less that 25 kg/m2). All results are based on consumption of 50 to 200 g of millets per day for a duration ranging from 21 days to four months.
These findings are influenced by comparisons that show that millets are much higher in unsaturated fatty acids, with 2 to 10 times higher levels than refined wheat and milled rice as well as being much higher than whole grain wheat.
"Unhealthy diet is a major contributor to the rising incidence of diseases, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The results of this study along with our recent study that showed that the consumption of millets reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and helped manage type 2 diabetes, highlights a critical need to look carefully at how to most appropriately bring millets back into the diets in India and ensure this reaches the majority," National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) Director, Dr Hemalatha, said.
"Obesity and being overweight are increasing globally in both wealthy and poorer countries, so the need for solutions based on healthier diets is critical. This new information on the health benefits of millets further supports the need to invest more in the grain, including its whole value chain from better varieties for farmers through to agribusiness developments," ICRISAT Director General, Dr Jacqueline Hughes, said.
The study identified a number of priority future research areas including the need to study all different types of millets, understand any differences by variety alongside the different types of cooking and processing of millets and their impact on cardiovascular health.
Given the positive indicators to date, more detailed analysis on the impact of millets on weight management is also recommended. All relevant parameters are also recommended to be assessed to gain a deeper understanding of the impacts millets consumption on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease.
Lucknow, July 15 (IANS) The Yogi Adityanath government in Uttar Pradesh plans to reduce by half, the infant mortality rate over the next 10 years.
Provisions have been made for ensuring health services for all, with special attention to pregnant women, infants, sick newborns and children who are severely malnourished.
According to the government spokesman, the new policy has set a target of reducing the neonatal mortality rate of infants that takes place within 28 days of their birth from 32 to 22 by 2026 and to 12 by 2030.
Along with this, a target has also been set to bring down the under-five mortality from 47 to 35 by the year 2026 and to 25 by the year 2030.
According to the 2015-2016 report of National Family Health Survey-4, out of every thousand children born in the state, 52 newborns died in urban areas and 67 in rural areas, whereas, 62 children died in urban areas and 82 in rural areas per thousand children under the age of five years.
In last four years, the state government made significant efforts in reducing the birth rate, maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate, however, it is still less than the national average.
In 2016, the fertility rate in UP was 3.3, while the national average was 2.6. As a result of the sustained efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government, today the fertility rate in the state stands at 2.7, while the national average is 2.3.
Maternal mortality rate is 197 today compared to 258 in 2016, whereas the national average is 113.
Ved Prakash, General Manager, National Health Mission, UP, informed that the situation in the year 2018 has improved a lot as compared to back in 2008.
In the year 2008, where 45 deaths per thousand newborns took place, it has come down to 32 in the year 2018, while in the below five years age group, it has come down by three times in the year 2018 as compared to 2008.
He further said that continuous and determined efforts have been made to reduce the infant mortality rate and Special New-born Care Units and Nutrition Rehabilitation Center (NRC) Units have been established state-wide.
Through the new population policy, the health services especially for women, children and adolescents will further be improved and expanded extensively across the state.
Toronto, July 14 (IANS) Administering a full dose of a standard blood thinner early to moderately ill hospitalised patients with Covid-19 could halt the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of severe disease and death, finds a study.Covid-19 is marked by heightened inflammation and abnormal clotting in the blood vessels, particularly in the lungs, and is believed to contribute to progression to severe disease and death.The study, led by investigators at St Michael's Hospital in Canada, and the University of Vermont in the US, showed that heparin -- a blood thinner given regularly at low dose to hospitalised patients -- stops clots from forming and reduces inflammation. The details are available as a preprint on MedRxiv."This study was designed to detect a difference in the primary outcome that included ICU transfer, mechanical ventilation or death," said Mary Cushman, Professor of medicine from Vermont's Larner College of Medicine."While we found that therapeutic heparin didn't statistically significantly lower incidence of the primary composite of death, mechanical ventilation or ICU admission compared with low dose heparin, the odds of all-cause death were significantly reduced by 78 per cent with therapeutic heparin," said first author Michelle Sholzberg, Head of Division of Hematology-Oncology, at St. Michael's Hospital of Unity Health Toronto, and assistant professor at the University of Toronto.The team conducted a randomised international trial that examined the benefits of administering a therapeutic full dose of heparin versus a prophylactic low dose to moderately ill patients admitted to hospital wards with Covid-19.Four patients (1.8 per cent) with therapeutic heparin died versus 18 (7.6 per cent) with prophylactic heparin).An additional meta-analysis presented in the preprint showed that therapeutic heparin is beneficial in moderately ill hospitalised patients but not in severely ill ICU patients."We believe that the findings of our trial and the multiplatform trial taken together should result in a change in clinical practice for moderately ill ward patients with Covid-19," Sholzberg said.--IANSrvt/dpb
London, July 5 (IANS) The UK government has ruled out plans to decrease the gaps between two doses of Covid-19 vaccinations, even as infections driven by the Delta variant are surging in the country.The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation ruled out the three week gap and recommended "an interval of 8 to 12 weeks between doses of all the available Covid-19 vaccines", dashing hopes that the UK might be able to speed up the vaccination programme by closing the gaps between doses, the Financial Times reported.The advisory body said this gap would "avoid confusion and simplify booking, and will help to ensure a good balance between achieving rapid and long-lasting protection."Last week, Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that the UK is "very likely" to ease lockdown measures on July 19. It was pushed back by four weeks from June 21 amid concern over the spread of the Delta variant.Easing of lockdown measures could be a cause of concern as the country will not meet its target of ensuring two-thirds of adults with two jabs, FT cited people familiar with the UK vaccination programme.Experts from the National Health Service (NHS) and scientists are concerned as only 63 per cent in the country are fully vaccinated, while more than 85 per cent received only the first dose of a Covid vaccine. At the same time latest data showed Covid-19 infections have jumped by 74 per cent week-on-week."We may have weakened the link between infections, hospitalisations and deaths but this significant increase in infections with the Delta variant raises serious concerns," Professor Lawrence Young, a virologist at Warwick Medical School, was quoted as saying. "One risk was that, as the virus spread it would continue to generate new variants increasing the risk that one will pop up that is more vaccine resistant," he added.While some suspect that the decision to not reduce the gap between the two jabs is due to difficulty in accessing supplies. However, government insiders have denied supply constraints, the report said.But, Prof Anthony Harnden, deputy chair of the JCVI said: "regardless of supply constraints the minimum eight-week gap was preferable as it meant young people, who may not receive boosters in the autumn, had robust and long-lasting protection.--IANSrvt/in