London- Adolescents who had received a mental health disorder diagnosis were often excluded from the labour market and education as young adults, finds a new study.
The study indicated that almost 11 percent of adolescents who had received a psychiatric diagnosis were excluded from the education and labour market for at least five years in their early adulthood.
"Vocational rehabilitation and tight collaboration between psychiatry and social services are important for enabling adolescents suffering from mental health problems to access the labour market," said lead author David Gyllenberg from the University of Turku (Finland).
For the study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, the team included 55,273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration.
The results are concerning because they highlight the link between mental health disorders and long-term exclusion from education and labour market.
In the study, long-term exclusion was defined as a period spent outside education or paid employment lasting a minimum of five years.
The link was particularly strong with those teenagers who had not completed their upper secondary education and who had been diagnosed with a mental health disorder.
Almost half of these teenagers who had experienced psychosis and almost three-quarters of teenagers who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder experienced long-term exclusion from education and labour market in their early adulthood.
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Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
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San Francisco, Sep 5 (IANS) Google is all set to collaborate with researchers to develop new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to improve brain stimulation devices to treat people with psychiatric illness and direct brain injuries, such as stroke.The tech giant has tied up with researchers at Mayo Clinic to develop a set of paradigms, or viewpoints, that simplify comparisons between effects of electrical stimulation on the brain.They developed a new type of algorithm called "basis profile curve identification"."Our findings show that this new type of algorithm may help us understand which brain regions directly interact with one another, which in turn may help guide placement of electrodes for stimulating devices to treat network brain diseases," said Kai Miller, a Mayo Clinic neurosurgeon."As new technology emerges, this type of algorithm may help us to better treat patients with epilepsy, movement disorders like Parkinson's disease, and psychiatric illnesses like obsessive compulsive disorder and depression," he added.The new technique was demonstrated for an array of implanted brain surface electrodes in a human patient. A patient with a brain tumour underwent placement of an electrocorticographic electrode array to locate seizures and map brain function before a tumour was removed.Every electrode interaction resulted in hundreds to thousands of time points to be studied using the new algorithm.The framework enables straightforward interpretation of single-pulse brain stimulation data, and can be applied generically to explore the diverse milieu of interactions that comprise the connectome, the researchers explained in the study published in PLOS Computational Biology."Neurologic data to date is perhaps the most challenging and exciting data to model for AI researchers," said Klaus-Robert Mueller, member of the Google Research Brain Team.--IANSrvt/vd
New Delhi, Aug 4 (IANS) An Indian scientist has developed human-based models to study neuron development and neuro-developmental disorders such as autism which can help design treatment strategies for such brain disorders.Yogita K. Adlakha, a recipient of INSPIRE Faculty fellowship instituted by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has achieved this feat, the DST said on Wednesday.INSPIRE -- that stands for Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research Programme -- is a scheme by the DST for attracting talent towards science.Since decades, animal models have been used to understand brain-related disorders, and the drugs which function in animal models have failed in clinical trials, therefore Adlakha filled this gap by generating human-based stem cell model to understand brain development and dysfunction at the National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana.At present, she works as a scientist at the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Bio-cluster, Faridabad."The dearth of human models has led to a lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology of such disorders, an essential requirement for designing their treatment strategies," the DST said.Yogita filled this gap and developed a human-based model that could help study how brain develops, particularly the neurons, and what goes awry during brain development leading to cognitive decline, impairment in language, and social interaction.Along with her group, she derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human peripheral blood and differentiated them into neural stem cells (NSCs).Since levels of microRNA-137 are less in neuro-developmental disorders such as ASD and ID, her study demonstrates crucial roles of this miRNA during human NSC fate determination with an elaboration of underlying molecular mechanisms. This study was published in the journal "STEM CELLS" recently."My research using DST INSPIRE fund has definitely contributed to expanding the knowledge of neuron development and neuro-developmental disorders such as autism and the role of small non-coding miRNA in brain-specific stem cells fate," Adlakha added.Along with her research group, she established a protocol from India for the first time by generating and producing iPSCs from human peripheral blood. They have further refined the protocol of differentiation of iPSCs into brain-specific stem cells that is, NSCs.Her group has contributed immensely towards understanding the role of microRNA in the neural stem cell fate, which revealed how certain small non-coding RNAs called microRNA, which do not form protein but regulate expression of other genes, can enhance differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons.Her research has contributed to expanding the knowledge of neuron development and the role of small non-coding miRNA in brain-specific stem cells fate, thereby changing the face of neuroscience and stem cells.--IANSniv/khz
The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland located at the base of the neck plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the body. It also regulates multiple functions, including energy levels, weight, heart rate and mood. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the needs of the body.
Despite the high prevalence, thyroid disorders, along with other non-communicable diseases, remain neglected. A study conducted across eight cities in India suggests that nearly one-third of people living with hypothyroidism experience the disorder but are unaware of it due to a lack of diagnosis.
Highlighting the need for timely diagnosis of thyroid-related conditions, Manoj Chadha, Senior Consultant Endocrinologist, HOPE & CARE Hospital, Vashi, Navi Mumbai said, "In Mumbai alone, we have seen 2.86 per cent cases of hypothyroidism go undiagnosed. Adults who are aged 35 years and above, pregnant, and middle-aged women, in particular, are at high risk and may suffer additional complications if a thyroid disorder is left untreated. Undetected hypothyroidism results in increased vulnerability to comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension."
He continued, "The pathophysiological association between Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and thyroid dysfunction is believed to be the result of an interplay between various biochemical, genetic, and hormonal malfunctions. Poorly managed T2DM can lead to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes in diabetics.11 As a result, it increases the cardiovascular risk in T2DM. This can only be reduced with frequent screening to ensure timely diagnosis, which in turn will drive treatment and disease management for hypothyroidism at an early stage."
Here are 4 reasons why women should be aware of thyroid disorders-
Women are three times more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men- Moreover, hypothyroidism is especially common among women especially during child-bearing age (although women of all ages are at risk). Women with high-risk factors for hypothyroidism should particularly be encouraged to undergo screening.
These factors include- Residing in an area with moderate-severe iodine insufficiency, obesity, history of thyroid dysfunction or presence of goitre in the individual or a first-degree relative, history of recurrent miscarriages or pre-term delivery, infertility, or autoimmune diseases (Type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, Coeliac disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis).
Elusive signs & symptoms- Don't suffer silently: Women tend to ignore their health and visit a doctor only when extremely ill or experiencing severe symptoms. Hypothyroidism symptoms, which tend to be subtle and non-specific, go under the radar. These include fatigue, excessive weight gain, constipation, dry skin, cold intolerance, lethargy, muscle cramps and puffy eyelids, which overlap with those of other disease areas or blend in with the rigours of everyday life. It is thus essential to get yourself screened, instead of waiting for multiple symptoms to persist. Take action proactively to alleviate any symptoms and avoid further complications.
The added risk of health complications- The potential consequences of thyroid disorders include more than just hair loss and weight fluctuations. If left untreated, thyroid disorders can prompt a number of health complications, from elevated cholesterol levels and depression to irregular menstrual cycles and a higher risk of infertility or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Thyroid disorders can also amplify or worsen symptoms of menopause. In more serious cases, they may even lead to cardiovascular or neurological complications, as well as diabetes.
Timely treatment to safeguard maternal and child health- Hypothyroidism can have worrying implications for pregnant women, if not adequately managed. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of anaemia, miscarriage, postpartum bleeding, pre-eclampsia, and placental abruption.
The thyroid hormone is also critical for the development of the fetal brain and nervous system, especially during the first trimester when the foetus depends on the mother's supply of the hormone. Thyroid disorders may also increase the risk of pre-term birth and low birth weight. Being aware and undergoing screening before and during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.
Women with hypothyroidism detected during pregnancy can speak to their endocrinologist to understand how to best manage their condition.
Commenting on the need to tackle thyroid disorders, Srirupa Das, Medical Director, Abbott said, "Abbott is committed to raising awareness on thyroid disorders in India. By educating people at higher risk, especially women, about the nature, prevalence and symptoms of the condition, we aim to encourage increased screening, which facilitates timely diagnosis and treatment. We are committed to continuing 'Making India Thyroid Aware' to empower people to pursue better health."
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New York, Aug 1 (IANS) Teleconferencing platforms like Zoom and Microsoft Teams helped people stay connected during the coronavirus pandemic. But the platforms could not capture sounds accurately enough for clinicians to successfully treat and evaluate patients with voice and speech disorders, according to a study.In a virtual world, voice therapy presents a unique challenge because clinicians must rely on acoustic recordings of voice to evaluate the effectiveness of their treatments. But many teleconferencing platforms distorted sounds in their efforts to eliminate background noise, revealed the study led by a team of researchers at the Boston University in the US.As the pandemic unfolded and lockdowns moved much voice and speech therapy online, "There was no consensus among (voice and speech) clinicians (who were) trying to convert to telepractice therapy, and we wanted to determine the accuracy of the acoustic measures they can get through telepractice," said Hasini Weerathunge, a graduate student at BU's Rafik B Hariri Institute for Computing and Computational Science and Engineering.The team put five different HIPAA-compliant teleconferencing platforms to the test: Cisco Webex, Microsoft Teams, Doxy.me, VSee Messenger, and Zoom.In a soundproof room, the team recorded voice samples from 29 patients, aged 18 to 82, that had a variety of speech or voice diagnoses. These recordings were then played back to researchers through an external speaker over the teleconferencing platforms, simulating telepractice conversations.The team found that each platform has its own audio enhancement algorithm that affects the quality of the sound. Zoom was the only platform that enabled users to turn off these audio enhancement features, allowing the researchers to test the platform's original audio.All the teleconferencing platforms did a poor job at capturing many measurements needed for accurate and clinically meaningful voice evaluations. Pitch varied significantly on all the virtual platforms compared to the real-life recordings. This might be due to internet connection or bandwidth issues that affect how and when sounds get transmitted through the platforms, the researchers said.They also found the dynamic range of the vocal loudness measured over telepractice was very different from live recordings.The effect was even true for Zoom, where the researchers could turn off the audio enhancements.Overall, "Microsoft Teams performed the best, in that all our voice measures were the least affected in that platform," Weerathunge said.Because many of the voice metrics collected from virtual platforms had clinically significant differences from those collected in person, Weerathunge and the team urge caution for voice and speech therapists using telepractice.--IANSrvt/dpb