London- Adolescents who had received a mental health disorder diagnosis were often excluded from the labour market and education as young adults, finds a new study.
The study indicated that almost 11 percent of adolescents who had received a psychiatric diagnosis were excluded from the education and labour market for at least five years in their early adulthood.
"Vocational rehabilitation and tight collaboration between psychiatry and social services are important for enabling adolescents suffering from mental health problems to access the labour market," said lead author David Gyllenberg from the University of Turku (Finland).
For the study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, the team included 55,273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration.
The results are concerning because they highlight the link between mental health disorders and long-term exclusion from education and labour market.
In the study, long-term exclusion was defined as a period spent outside education or paid employment lasting a minimum of five years.
The link was particularly strong with those teenagers who had not completed their upper secondary education and who had been diagnosed with a mental health disorder.
Almost half of these teenagers who had experienced psychosis and almost three-quarters of teenagers who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder experienced long-term exclusion from education and labour market in their early adulthood.
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San Francisco, Sep 5 (IANS) Google is all set to collaborate with researchers to develop new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to improve brain stimulation devices to treat people with psychiatric illness and direct brain injuries, such as stroke.The tech giant has tied up with researchers at Mayo Clinic to develop a set of paradigms, or viewpoints, that simplify comparisons between effects of electrical stimulation on the brain.They developed a new type of algorithm called "basis profile curve identification"."Our findings show that this new type of algorithm may help us understand which brain regions directly interact with one another, which in turn may help guide placement of electrodes for stimulating devices to treat network brain diseases," said Kai Miller, a Mayo Clinic neurosurgeon."As new technology emerges, this type of algorithm may help us to better treat patients with epilepsy, movement disorders like Parkinson's disease, and psychiatric illnesses like obsessive compulsive disorder and depression," he added.The new technique was demonstrated for an array of implanted brain surface electrodes in a human patient. A patient with a brain tumour underwent placement of an electrocorticographic electrode array to locate seizures and map brain function before a tumour was removed.Every electrode interaction resulted in hundreds to thousands of time points to be studied using the new algorithm.The framework enables straightforward interpretation of single-pulse brain stimulation data, and can be applied generically to explore the diverse milieu of interactions that comprise the connectome, the researchers explained in the study published in PLOS Computational Biology."Neurologic data to date is perhaps the most challenging and exciting data to model for AI researchers," said Klaus-Robert Mueller, member of the Google Research Brain Team.--IANSrvt/vd
The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland located at the base of the neck plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the body. It also regulates multiple functions, including energy levels, weight, heart rate and mood. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the needs of the body.
Despite the high prevalence, thyroid disorders, along with other non-communicable diseases, remain neglected. A study conducted across eight cities in India suggests that nearly one-third of people living with hypothyroidism experience the disorder but are unaware of it due to a lack of diagnosis.
Highlighting the need for timely diagnosis of thyroid-related conditions, Manoj Chadha, Senior Consultant Endocrinologist, HOPE & CARE Hospital, Vashi, Navi Mumbai said, "In Mumbai alone, we have seen 2.86 per cent cases of hypothyroidism go undiagnosed. Adults who are aged 35 years and above, pregnant, and middle-aged women, in particular, are at high risk and may suffer additional complications if a thyroid disorder is left untreated. Undetected hypothyroidism results in increased vulnerability to comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension."
He continued, "The pathophysiological association between Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and thyroid dysfunction is believed to be the result of an interplay between various biochemical, genetic, and hormonal malfunctions. Poorly managed T2DM can lead to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes in diabetics.11 As a result, it increases the cardiovascular risk in T2DM. This can only be reduced with frequent screening to ensure timely diagnosis, which in turn will drive treatment and disease management for hypothyroidism at an early stage."
Here are 4 reasons why women should be aware of thyroid disorders-
Women are three times more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men- Moreover, hypothyroidism is especially common among women especially during child-bearing age (although women of all ages are at risk). Women with high-risk factors for hypothyroidism should particularly be encouraged to undergo screening.
These factors include- Residing in an area with moderate-severe iodine insufficiency, obesity, history of thyroid dysfunction or presence of goitre in the individual or a first-degree relative, history of recurrent miscarriages or pre-term delivery, infertility, or autoimmune diseases (Type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, Coeliac disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis).
Elusive signs & symptoms- Don't suffer silently: Women tend to ignore their health and visit a doctor only when extremely ill or experiencing severe symptoms. Hypothyroidism symptoms, which tend to be subtle and non-specific, go under the radar. These include fatigue, excessive weight gain, constipation, dry skin, cold intolerance, lethargy, muscle cramps and puffy eyelids, which overlap with those of other disease areas or blend in with the rigours of everyday life. It is thus essential to get yourself screened, instead of waiting for multiple symptoms to persist. Take action proactively to alleviate any symptoms and avoid further complications.
The added risk of health complications- The potential consequences of thyroid disorders include more than just hair loss and weight fluctuations. If left untreated, thyroid disorders can prompt a number of health complications, from elevated cholesterol levels and depression to irregular menstrual cycles and a higher risk of infertility or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Thyroid disorders can also amplify or worsen symptoms of menopause. In more serious cases, they may even lead to cardiovascular or neurological complications, as well as diabetes.
Timely treatment to safeguard maternal and child health- Hypothyroidism can have worrying implications for pregnant women, if not adequately managed. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of anaemia, miscarriage, postpartum bleeding, pre-eclampsia, and placental abruption.
The thyroid hormone is also critical for the development of the fetal brain and nervous system, especially during the first trimester when the foetus depends on the mother's supply of the hormone. Thyroid disorders may also increase the risk of pre-term birth and low birth weight. Being aware and undergoing screening before and during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.
Women with hypothyroidism detected during pregnancy can speak to their endocrinologist to understand how to best manage their condition.
Commenting on the need to tackle thyroid disorders, Srirupa Das, Medical Director, Abbott said, "Abbott is committed to raising awareness on thyroid disorders in India. By educating people at higher risk, especially women, about the nature, prevalence and symptoms of the condition, we aim to encourage increased screening, which facilitates timely diagnosis and treatment. We are committed to continuing 'Making India Thyroid Aware' to empower people to pursue better health."
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New York, July 31 (IANS) A team of researchers has leveraged two new molecules, one of which is currently in clinical oncology trials, to devise a dual-drug therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD), without the side-effects or complications associated with current treatment regimens.The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, indicates that the approach had highly successful results in mice and may apply to other drugs that are often abused."Alcohol use disorder is really a process of maladapted learning and memory," said researcher Dorit Ron from the University of California, San Francisco."Alcohol is rewarding, and we learn to associate alcohol, and even the environment in which we drink the alcohol, with that reward," Ron added.At the root of the team's thinking is the idea that AUD and other substance abuse disorders are the results of reinforced pathways in the brain, and that those pathways can be blocked or redirected, ending cravings and habitual behaviour.The researcher said she is studying the role of the enzyme mTORC1 in the creation of those memories and associations, to create an effective drug that can treat the neurological causes of AUD.Ordinarily, mTORC1 is involved in brain plasticity, helping to create connections between neurons that reinforce memory. In previous work, Ron showed that consuming alcohol activates the enzyme in the brain.Ron has also shown that blocking the activity of mTORC1 with the FDA-approved compound rapamycin, used to treat some types of cancer and suppress the immune response in transplant patients, can halt cravings in mice engineered for alcohol use disorder.But mTORC1 contributes to a bevy of other bodily tasks related to metabolism and liver function, and people taking it for an extended period often develop liver toxicity, glucose intolerance, and other side effects.Ron believes that tackling addiction from a neurological perspective has potential for broad applications."We could see these side effects in mice who are taking rapamycin or RapaLink-1, and then when you give Rapablock, it's like magic, the side effects are gone," Ron noted.--IANSvc/arm
<br>Genetic Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type-1 ails this little boy from Rajasthan's Nagaur district. The disorder is characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy) in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles).His hapless parents are crying for help as Tanishk needs an injection worth Rs 16 crore. The parents are poor and hail from a small village. They pin their hope on crowdfunding and appeal to all who can afford to help them out.Shaitan Singh, the father of the kid visited Nagaur MP Hanuman Beniwal, who assured them all help and also spoke to the Superintendent of JK Lone Hospital in Jaipur and other paediatricians regarding Tanishk's treatment.The father told IANS: "Tanishk's life is incomplete without the said gene. The solution to all Tanishk's problems is just one injection, but the cost of this one injection is Rs 16 crore, which is not easy for us to buy. Tanishk is our only child, I work as a lawyer in a small town like Parbatsar.He said Tanishk's trouble started when he was four-five months old."We did not know about the disease at first, but later Priyanshu Mathur, our pediatrician at J.K. Lone Hospital Jaipur, said that Tanishk is suffering from SMA."Till now, we have been able to keep things under control for Tanihk with the help of exercise, so that all the muscles of his body remain active. Our family members take turns to make him exercise for three to four hours a day. His treatment is the world's most expensive injection Zolgensma," informed Singh.Three-year-old Ayansh Gupta from Hyderabad, who was battling rare spinal muscular atrophy, received the gift of life on June 9 as the money required for injection was raised for him through crowdfunding."Our hopes have increased ever since we came to know about Ayansh's story of 'rebirth'. This country belongs to the kind and compassionate people and I hope everyone will definitely help to save my son's life," said Deepika Kanwar with folded hands urging people to contribute so that her only son can live. --IANS<br>arc/in
London, July 18 (IANS) The odds of dying or being hospitalised following Covid-19 infection in individuals with psychiatric disorders were found to be twice as high in comparison to persons without mental disorders, finds a study.The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Lancet Psychiatry, compiled data from 33 studies from 22 countries, comprising 1,469,731 patients with Covid-19, of whom 43,938 had mental disorders.Individuals with psychotic disorders and mood disorders, as well as patients receiving treatment with antipsychotics or anxiolytics (anxiety reducing drugs) appeared as the most vulnerable groups for Covid-19-associated mortality. Patients with substance use disorders were also at increased risk for hospitalisation following Covid-19."Antipsychotics might increase cardiovascular and thromboembolic risks, interfere with an adequate immune response, and cause interactions with drugs used to treat Covid-19. Benzodiazepines -- psychoactive drugs -- are associated with respiratory risk, and are known to be associated with all-cause mortality. By contrast, some antidepressants were recently shown to have protective effects," said Marion Leboyer, Professor at University of Paris Est Creteil, France.In addition, social and lifestyle factors such as diet, physical inactivity, social isolation, high alcohol and tobacco use, and sleep disturbances, and a higher prevalence of somatic comorbidities might also have detrimental effects on Covid-19 prognosis, the researchers explained.Researchers call for national and international health authorities to take concerted action by offering priority vaccination to patients with severe mental illness, intellectual disability, and substance use disorders, and highlight the urgency of actions to counteract possible reduced access to care.Importantly, the study data revealed a striking contrast in patients with severe mental illness.Patients with psychotic disorders in particular were affected by the highest mortality risk, but did not have increased risk of hospital admission."We know these patients face important barriers to physical healthcare, and our results suggest reduced access to care could have contributed to the increased mortality seen in this group. "Public health authorities need to take targeted action to ensure maximum vaccination uptake for all groups of at-risk patients identified in this study. Close monitoring and adequate hospital referral in patients with psychiatric disorders who develop Covid-19 is needed to counteract possible reduced access to care," said Livia De Picker from the University Psychiatric Hospital Campus Duffel, Belgium.--IANSrvt/dpb