London, May 7 (IANS) Most patients hospitalised for Covid-19 infection return to full health, but one in three may develop lung damage even after a year, according to a study published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.People are most commonly hospitalised for Covid-19 infection when it affects the lungs -- termed Covid-19 pneumonia.A The study showed that even after a year, a third of patients' measures of lung function were reduced, particularly how efficiently oxygen is transferred in the lungs into the blood. This was more frequently found in women than in men.In around a quarter of patients CT scans showed there were still small areas of change in the lungs, and this was more common in patients with more severe lung changes at time of hospitalisation. About 5 per cent of patients still reported breathlessness, found researchers from the University of Southampton in the UK."The majority of patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia appeared to fully recover, although for some patients this took many months. Women were more likely to have persistent reductions in lung function tests and further investigation is needed to understand if there is a sex specific difference in how patient's recover," said Mark Jones, Associate Professor in Respiratory Medicine at the varsity."We also don't yet know what happens beyond 12 months and this will need ongoing study," Jones added.The team worked with collaborators in Wuhan, China, to investigate the natural history of recovery from severe Covid-19 pneumonia up to one year after hospitalisation. About 83 patients were recruited after they were discharged from hospital following severe Covid-19 pneumonia and were followed up after three, six, nine and twelve months.The research provides evidence that routine respiratory follow-up of patients hospitalised with Covid-19-pneumonia is required. It also highlights the need for exploring treatment strategies, including the role of exercise programmes to prevent the development of long term Covid-19 related lung changes.--IANSrvt/sdr/
London, Researchers have developed a DNA test to quickly identify secondary infections in Covid-19 patients, who have double the risk of developing pneumonia while on ventilation.
For patients with the most severe forms of Covid-19, mechanical ventilation is often the only way to keep them alive, as doctors use anti-inflammatory therapies to treat their inflamed lungs.
However, these patients are susceptible to further infections from bacteria and fungi that they may acquire while in hospital -- so called 'ventilator-associated pneumonia'.
"Early on in the pandemic, we noticed that Covid-19 patients appeared to be particularly at risk of developing secondary pneumonia, and started using a rapid diagnostic test that we had developed for just such a situation," said co-author Andrew Conway Morris from the University of Cambridge.
"Using this test, we found that patients with Covid-19 were twice as likely to develop secondary pneumonia as other patients in the same intensive care unit," Conway added.
Normally, confirming a pneumonia diagnosis is challenging, as bacterial samples from patients need to be cultured and grown in a lab, which is time-consuming.
The test takes an alternative approach by detecting the DNA of different pathogens, which allows for faster and more accurate testing, according to a paper published in the journal Critical Care.
The test uses multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which detects the DNA of the bacteria and can be done in around four hours, meaning there is no need to wait for the bacteria to grow.
IT runs multiple PCR reactions in parallel, and can simultaneously pick up 52 different pathogens, which often infect the lungs of patients in intensive care. At the same time, it can also test for antibiotic resistance.
"We found that although patients with Covid-19 were more likely to develop secondary pneumonia, the bacteria that caused these infections were similar to those in ICU patients without Covid-19," said lead author Mailis Maes from the varsity.
"This means that standard antibiotic protocols can be applied to Covid-19 patients," Maes added. (Agency)
According to a study by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation(IHME), air pollution accounts for about 17.5 percent of the major causes of pneumonia. Approximately 1,95,000 (or 29.4 percent of total deaths) deaths occur due to pollution caused by the use of cooking solid fuels.
According to UNICEF, pneumonia is the greatest risk to children. Globally, it affects the lives of more than 8,00,000 infected children under the age of five every year, including more than 1,53,000 newborns. That is, every 39 seconds a child dies of pneumonia. The current death rate due to pneumonia is five per 1,000 live births and is targeted to be reduced to three by the year 2025.
Anybody may get this lung infection, but infants younger than age 2 and people over age 65 are at higher risk. That’s because their immunity might not be strong enough to fight it. So, here you will know the symptoms, causes, treatment, stage, and treatment of pneumonia.
What is Pneumonia?
In Ayurveda, pneumonia is called respiratory fever. Major symptoms of respiratory fever include feeling stiff with increasing body temperature, chest pain, cough with mucus. There is also difficulty in breathing and exhaling and problems of breathlessness.
The naadee (pulse) becomes soft, heavy, and sharp. Other symptoms of this include sweating on the forehead, fatigue, weakness, mania, and dry and strange feeling on the tongue. It is advisable to be admitted to the hospital immediately if the pulse is too fast and there is difficulty in breathing.
The condition of fever with pneumonia is known as “Kapha Pradhan”. Bad phlegm and ama (toxins) cause blockages in the various pulse of the body. Due to this, fire spreads throughout the body and starts feeling hot on the skin, which increases the body temperature. Ayurvedic treatment of pneumonia works to reduce Kapha dosha.
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine(PCV)
PCV protects children from pneumococcal bacteria from pneumonia and meningitis and other diseases. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death of children under five in the world. About 20% of pneumonia-related deaths of children below five years of age occur in India. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the cause of 16% of severe pneumonia in children up to five years of age in India.
In children under five years, 30% of pneumonia deaths occur due to pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) reduces the burden of the disease in the state. 139 countries have included PCV in their vaccination program. The inclusion of PCV in vaccination was suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Technical Advisory Group.
Types of Pneumonia
There are five types of pneumonia-
1. Bacterial Pneumonia
This type of pneumonia is caused by several bacteria, the most common being Streptococcus pneumoniae. This usually occurs when the body becomes weak in some way, such as illness, nutritional deficiency, old age, or body immune problems that cause bacteria to pass into the lungs.
Bacterial pneumonia can affect all ages, but if you drink alcohol, smoke, are weak, have recently had surgery, have respiratory disease or viral infections, or have a weakened immune system, you may have pneumonia. The possibilities are more.
2. Viral Pneumonia
This type of pneumonia is caused by several viruses including influenza (flu). If you have viral pneumonia then you are more likely to get bacterial pneumonia.
3. Mycoplasma Pneumonia
This type of pneumonia has somewhat different symptoms and is called atypical pneumonia. It is caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It usually causes mild but widespread pneumonia which affects all age groups.
4. Aspiration Pneumonia
This type of pneumonia is caused by any food, liquid, gas, or dust. It is also known as necrotizing pneumonia, anaerobic pneumonia, aspiration pneumonitis, and aspiration of vomitus. This type of pneumonia is sometimes difficult to cure because people who have aspiration pneumonia are already ill.
5. Fungal Pneumonia
This type of pneumonia is caused by various endemic or opportunistic fungus. This causes fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis. Cases of fungal pneumonia are quite difficult to diagnose.
Stages of Pneumonia
The four stages of lobar pneumonia include:
Stage 1: Congestion
During the congestion stage, the lungs become very heavy and congested due to infectious fluid that has collected in the air sacs. During this stage, your older loved one can experience early pneumonia signs such as:
• A feeling of heaviness in the chest
• Loss of appetite
• Rapid breathing
Stage 2: Red hepatization
Red blood cells and immune cells that enter the fluid-filled lungs to combat the infection give the lungs a red appearance. Although the body is beginning to fight the infection during this stage, your loved one may experience worsening symptoms such as:
• Increasingly productive cough
• Shortness of breath
• Muscle aches
• Extreme fatigue
• fingernails due to low grade of oxygen in the blood
Some older adults may experience confusion during this stage. If your senior loved one experiences severe symptoms such as difficulty breathing, high fever, or blue lips or fingernails, you should seek emergency treatment.
Stage 3: Gray hepatization
Red blood cells will fall to the bit during this stage, giving the lungs a grayish color. However, immune cells remain, and symptoms will likely preserve.
Stage 4: Resolution
During the resolution stage, seniors can begin to feel better as immune cells rid their body of infection. However, they can develop a productive cough that helps to remove fluid from the lungs.
Symptoms of Pneumonia
If you have pneumonia, you will have flu-like or chest infections. In a few days, the symptoms may develop slowly or progress very rapidly. The main symptom of pneumonia is cough. You will feel tired and weak and you may have any of these symptoms -
• Mucus cough
• Fever (you may also shiver and sweat)
• Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
• Chest pain or discomfort
• Loss of appetite
You may also have more grievous symptoms -
• Rapid breathing
• low blood pressure
• Coughing up blood
• Bursting speed
• nausea and vomiting
Some people have severe chest pain while breathing. This may be because infections and inflammation occur in the thin outer covering of the lungs that block your lungs from functioning easily.
Symptoms of pneumonia are often similar to other chest infections such as bronchitis.
Causes of Pneumonia
Viruses, bacteria, fungus or parasitic organisms, or other organisms may cause pneumonia.
• Many types of bacteria can be a reason for pneumonia.
• In most of the cases, the organism causing pneumonia (such as bacteria or virus) is also not detected by the test, but it is usually because of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
• Mycoplasma pneumoniae caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is sometimes mild and is also called walking pneumonia.
• Viruses such as influenza A (flu virus) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can also cause pneumonia.
• People who have immune system problems can also be caused by pneumonia from other organisms such as Pneumocystis Jiroveci. This fungus generally causes pneumonia in people who have AIDS. Some doctors may recommend HIV testing if they believe that pneumocystis Jiroveci is the cause of pneumonia.
Prevention of Pneumonia
The main ways to avoid pneumonia are-
• Get a Vaccine
Vaccines are available to stop certain types of flu and pneumonia. Vaccination changes over time, so even if you have been vaccinated for your pneumonia, talk to your doctor.
• Vaccination of Children
Doctors advised different pneumonia vaccines for children under 2 years of age and children 2 to 5 years old. Doctors also advised flu shots for children older than 6 months.
• Take Care of Cleanliness
To protect yourself from respiratory infections (which sometimes cause pneumonia), wash your hands regularly.
• Do Not Smoke
Smoking is the reason for a lot of damage to your lungs.
• Keep Your Immune System Healthy
Exercise regularly, get enough sleep and eat a healthy diet.
Pneumonia Risks & Complications
Certain factors may increase your chances of getting pneumonia. like-
1. Environmental and lifestyle factors
• To smoke
• Working in a contaminated environment.
• Work in the hospital
2. Medical Factors
• People who have viral respiratory infections such as flu are at higher risk of getting pneumonia.
• Difficulty swallowing food due to conditions such as stroke or dementia can cause pneumonia.
• Chronic lung disease can also cause pneumonia.
• People with a weakened immune system are more at risk of developing pneumonia due to illness or medications.
3. Age Group
People older than 65 and children 2 years or older are at higher risk of developing pneumonia. Pneumonia can also be fatal for this age group, so consult your doctor immediately if you have symptoms.
1. Blood Bacteria
Bacteria entering the bloodstream from your lungs can also affect other organs, causing problems in the functioning of other organs.
2. Shortness of Breath
If your pneumonia is severe or you have a chronic lung disease, you may have trouble taking enough oxygen in your breath. You can also require to be hospitalized and use a breathing machine (ventilator).
3. Fluid Accumulation Around Lungs
Pneumonia can cause fluid buildup in the thin space between layers of tissue. If the fluid becomes infected, you may need to have it removed through a chest tube or surgically.
4. Lung Abscess
Abscesses when there is pus in the lungs. The abscesses are usually treated with antibiotics. Sometimes a long needle or tube is needed in the abscess for surgery or drainage.
Ayurvedic Treatment of Pneumonia
• In the case of ama freezing and fever, langhan therapy is first given.
• It is also known as fasting. In this, the body is brought to a state of ablation (reducing calorie intake with a balanced diet). This causes ethereality in the body.
• There are two types of skipping: Nirahar (abandoning food completely) and fruitier (consuming only fruits). In skipping therapy, the patient has to stay on a diet or diet, depending on the nature of the person.
• For people of Vata nature, dietary medicine is good for those with fruit, bile, and Kapha nature.
• Langhan improves Ama's digestion, digestive fire, and senses begin to function faster.
• Langhan therapy lasts for 3 days and 3 nights. Prewinter and winter season are best for Langhan.
• Vaman (vomiting) is a bioremediation therapy that cleanses the body of toxins, bad or excessive phlegm, and bile defects.
• It also cleans Ama and Kapha from the pulse and chest.
• Vamana karma is useful for relieving fever, lung problems, asthma, cough, and respiratory problems.
• Hot water or milk is used along with herbs like Pippali and Madanphal for the treatment of Kapha disorders.
• After vomiting, the patient is asked to wash the face, hands, and feet and inhale herbal fumes by breathing. It is necessary to rest after vomiting.
• With the success of vomiting, all the symptoms of the disease are removed and at the same time, peace of mind and mind is also attained.
Ayurvedic Herbs for Pneumonia
Ayurvedic Herbs for Pneumonia-
• This herb is known to increase immunity and prevent aging properties.
• Amla is mainly effective in treating anemia, asthma, diabetes, colds, and diseases related to the lungs.
• Apart from this, amla is also useful in the treatment of gums bleeding, hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), yeast infection, and cancer.
• Symptoms of pneumonia are effective in relieving inflammation in the lungs.
• Amalki has a number of antibacterial ingredients that help clean out the infected microbes causing pneumonia infection.
• Amlaki is rich in flavonoids and vitamin C, which prevents ammonia pneumonia from damage to lung tissue.
• Kutaj has contractive and antibacterial properties.
• Kutaj is used in Ayurveda to treat various diseases like diarrhea and pneumonia.
• Kutaj is the best antibacterial herb that makes it effective in treating pneumonia.
• These herbs are found all over India.
• The leaves and roots of Bhringraj are used in Ayurvedic medicine because of its antipyretic, energetic, and potency.
• It acts as an antibacterial, enhancing immunity, antioxidant, and protecting liver cells from damage.
• Due to these properties, Bhringraj is useful in reducing microbes occurring in pneumonia. It also improves overall health.
• Bhringraj can be taken as a decoction, extracts, medicinal oil, or ghee.
• Sesame seeds, oil, and leaves are used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases.
• It acts as an energetic and energetic and helps in the treatment of diseases related to reproduction, excretion, bladder, and respiratory system.
• Sesame helps in the treatment of pneumonia by stopping the work of microorganisms that spread the infection.
• Guduchi, used in traditional and Ayurvedic medicines, has anti-fever and immunity enhancing properties.
• It also acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, which helps in the treatment of pneumonia.
• Guduchi can be taken as a form of juice. Pneumonia fever can be reduced by taking a 10 ml dose of Guduchi juice with honey or Pippali powder.
• Vasa is useful in treating diseases related to circulation, respiratory, and nervous systems.
• Vasa is effective in relieving symptoms of cough, phlegm disorders, bronchitis, flu, and asthma. It mainly works on respiratory disorders.
• Fat should be taken with sugar and honey for the treatment of fever.
According to Ayurveda What to Do and What Not to Do If You Have Pneumonia
What To Do
• Include shali rice, mand, yava barley, oatmeal, and pulses such as moong dal and masoor dal in your diet.
• Eat fruits and vegetables such as Pointed gourd, cerebellum bitter gourd, shigru drumstick, Guduchi, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, grapes, and pomegranate.
• In order to recover quickly and make the treatment more effective, take light food, and get enough rest.
What Not To Do
• Do not eat chickpeas.
• Avoid eating sesame, junk food, and flatulence and acidity enhancing foods.
• Avoid drinking contaminated water as much as possible.
• Do not stop natural desires such as bowel movements and urination.
• Stay away from the habit of exercising, sleeping during the day, and eating frequently.
Do You Know
Q. Can I have pneumonia without a fever?
Ans. It is viable to have pneumonia without fever or cough. Symptoms can come on hastily or can worsen slowly over time. Sometimes a person who has a cold (a viral upper respiratory infection) will get a new fever and worsening that signals the start of the secondary bacterial infection.
Q. What pneumonia feels like?
Ans. The symptoms of viral pneumonia generally develop over a period of various days. Early signs are equal to influenza symptoms: weakness, fever, a dry cough, headache, and muscle pain. Within a day or two, the symptoms typically get worse, with shortness of breath, increasing cough, and muscle pain.
Q. Is this good to cough when you have pneumonia?
Ans. it's a good idea not to eliminate your cough completely, because coughing helps loosen and move fluid from your lungs. In addition, you have known that very few studies have looked at whether over-the-counter cough medicines lessen coughing reasoned by pneumonia.
Q. How do you get to know if you have pneumonia or just a cold?
Ans. You will experience pain when you cough or breathing, fever and chills, shortness of breath, and significant fatigue. Even if you have gentle or “walking” pneumonia, you will still feel pretty terrific. So, if you have a cold that takes a turn for the worse, see your doctor get checked for pneumonia.
Q. Can a cold turn into pneumonia?
Ans. We generally hear that the flu or a cold turned into pneumonia. That's not immaculate. However, pneumonia can develop as a secondary bacterial infection after a cold or the flu. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections can all result from flu or cold.
London - Researchers have now revealed that influenza infections can lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia, which claims many lives around the world every year.
Using an animal model, the study, published in the journal PNAS found that different nutrients and antioxidants, such as vitamin C and other normally cell-protective substances leak from the blood, thereby creating an environment in the lungs that favours the growth of the bacteria.
The bacteria adapt to the inflammatory environment by increasing the production of the bacterial enzyme HtrA.
The presence of HtrA weakens the immune system and promotes bacterial growth in the influenza-infected airways. The lack of HtrA stops bacterial growth.
"The ability of pneumococcus to grow in the lower airways during an influenza infection seems to depend on the nutrient-rich environment with its higher levels of antioxidants that occurs during a viral infection, as well as on the bacteria's ability to adapt to the environment and protect itself from being eradicated by the immune system," said study author Birgitta Henriques Normark from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
The results provide valuable information on how bacteria integrate with their environment in the lungs and could be used to find new therapies for double infections between the influenza virus and pneumococcal bacteria.
"HtrA is an enzyme, a protease, which helps to weaken the immune system and allows pneumococcal bacteria to penetrate the protective cell layer on the inside of the airways," said study author Vicky Sender.
"A possible strategy can therefore be the use of protease inhibitors to prevent pneumococcal growth in the lungs," Sender added.
It is still not known if Covid-19 patients are also sensitive to such secondary bacterial infections, but the researchers think that similar mechanisms could potentially be found in severely ill Covid-19 patients.
"It's likely that acute lung inflammation, regardless of cause, gives rise to leakage of nutrients and antioxidants, and to an environment that fosters bacterial growth," Henriques Normark noted. (IANS)
Sydney- Pneumonia vaccines can potentially reduce the impact of viruses such as Covid-19, said researchers, adding that it has reduced illness and death in patients with pneumonia, serious lung conditions and rotavirus, a common disease which causes severe diarrhoea and vomiting.
The University of Melbourne-led research team, which worked with the Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services, said the results underline the importance of vaccines and how they can potentially reduce the impact of viruses such as Covid-19.
Published in the journal 'Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific', the first study looked at Fiji's national rotavirus vaccine programme five years after it became the first independent Pacific island country to introduce the vaccine in 2012.
According to the researchers, rotavirus is severely contagious and the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. It can even cause death in extreme cases.
After taking the vaccine, morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea in Fiji fell in those aged two months to 55 years. Rotavirus diarrhoea admissions at the largest hospital among children aged under five fell by 87 per cent.
These reductions were most likely due to the vaccine as rotavirus diarrhoeal outbreaks remained blunted for the five years after vaccine introduction.
At the same time, in 2012, the Fiji government introduced a routine infant immunisation schedule for ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV10) vaccine using three primary doses and no booster dose.
Published in 'The Lancet Global Health', this second study looked at hospital admission rates for children with pneumonia at three Fiji public tertiary hospitals.
Five years after the vaccine was introduced, hospital admissions for all-cause pneumonia had fallen for children aged 24-59 months. Mortality was down by 39 per cent among children aged two to 24 months who were admitted to hospitals with all-case pneumonia, bronchiolitis and asthma.
The study showed the effect of PCV10 vaccine and supported its introduction for children in other low and middle-income countries in that region.
"These results provide supportive evidence of the probable benefits of PCV10 in reducing pneumonia in children in Fiji," said study lead researcher Fiona Russell from the Murdoch Children's Research Institute and the University of Melbourne. (IANS)
In view of the winter season and Covid-19, health experts on Wednesday said that many people are taking pneumonia and influenza vaccines as a precaution to save themselves from respiratory infections.
Experts have warned that it is highly possible that people may contract both influenza and the Covid-19 infection in winter, leading to devastating consequences.
Dr. Avi Kumar, Consultant - Pulmonology, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute in New Delhi told IANS: "What we are generally following is that in post-Covid patients we are giving flu vaccine as well as the pneumonia vaccine."
"Because right now we are at the start of winter and this is generally the beginning of flu season as well as coronavirus. Both are RNA viruses so the vaccine which is available against influenza is known to be very helpful in reducing hospitalization," Kumar explained.
International researchers have recently found that receiving the influenza vaccine does not increase a person's risk of contracting Covid-19 or worsen associated morbidity or mortality.
Published in the Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, the study shows the flu vaccine is the single most important intervention to help in staying healthy this fall and winter.
"More studies need to be done to confirm the same, only a few studies cannot confirm it," Kumar said.
"However, what is available with us right now is the prevention of other respiratory infections in the form of flu as well as pneumonia so that hospitals are not overburdened with other respiratory illnesses as well as Covid patients," he added.
"Hence, we prefer the tetravalent inactivated flu vaccine which has been given to every patient in post Covid status.
"In addition, we have been giving them vaccines for pneumonia, the conjugate vaccine is been given to the age group of above 65 years, this vaccine is given only once in a lifetime. We are also giving a polyvalent vaccine which is to be repeated once every five years," Kumar said.
According to Dr. Akshay Budhraja, Consultant Department of Pulmonology, Aakash Healthcare Super Speciality Hospital, in the absence of a vaccine specific to the Covid-19 virus right now, they are checking the vaccination history of the patient.
"We give one shot of flu vaccine every year and the pneumococcal vaccine is given once in five years. As of now, we have not faced any shortage," Budhraja told IANS. (IANS)