New York: Obesity, often a result of eating too much fat and sugar in combination with low physical activity, is known as a key factor for developing Type 2 diabetes. However, some obese people do not develop the disease that affect millions globally. Turns out their gut bacteria have a role to play.
Andrey Morgun and Natalia Shulzhenko of Oregon State University and Giorgio Trinchieri of the National Cancer Institute developed a novel analytical technique, multi-organ network analysis, to explore the mechanisms behind early-stage systemic insulin resistance.
The findings, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, showed that a particular type of gut microbe leads to white adipose tissue containing macrophage cells, large cells that are part of the immune system, associated with insulin resistance.
In the human body, white adipose tissue is the main type of fat.
"Our experiments and analysis predict that a high-fat/high-sugar diet primarily acts in white adipose tissue by driving microbiota-related damage to the energy synthesis process, leading to systemic insulin resistance," said Morgun, associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences in the OSU College of Pharmacy.
"Treatments that modify a patient's microbiota in ways that target insulin resistance in adipose tissue macrophage cells could be a new therapeutic strategy for Type 2 diabetes," he added.
The human gut microbiome features more than 10 trillion microbial cells from about 1,000 different bacterial species.
"The so-called 'western diet', high in saturated fats and refined sugars, is one of the primary factors. But gut bacteria have an important role to play in mediating the effects of diet," Shulzhenko said.
Experiments in mice, looking at the intestine, liver, muscle and white adipose tissue, the team found "adipose tissue has a predominant role in systemic insulin resistance".
Further they "discovered that the Oscillibacter microbe, enriched by a western diet, causes an increase of the insulin-resistant adipose tissue macrophage".
The researchers add, however, that Oscillibacter is likely not the only microbial regulator for expression of the key gene they identified, Mmp12, and that the Mmp12 pathway, while clearly instrumental, is probably not the only important pathway, depending on which gut microbes are present.
Previously studies have shown that another microbial species "Romboutsia ilealis worsens glucose tolerance by inhibiting insulin levels, which may be relevant to more advanced stages of Type 2 diabetes", Shulzhenko said. (Agency)
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Two years after infection with Covid-19, half of patients who were admitted to hospital still have at least one symptom, according to the study published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
The study followed 1,192 participants in China infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first phase of the pandemic in 2020.
While physical and mental health generally improved over time, the analysis suggests that Covid-19 patients still tend to have poorer health and quality of life than the general population.
This is especially the case for participants with long Covid, who typically still have at least one symptom including fatigue, shortness of breath, and sleep difficulties two years after initially falling ill.
"Our findings indicate that for a certain proportion of hospitalised Covid-19 survivors, while they may have cleared the initial infection, more than two years is needed to recover fully from it," said lead author Professor Bin Cao, of the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, China.
Six months after initially falling ill, 68 per cent of participants reported at least one long Covid symptom. By two years after infection, reports of symptoms had fallen to 55 per cent.
Fatigue or muscle weakness were the symptoms most often reported and fell from 52 per cent at six months to 30 per cent at two years.
Covid-19 patients were also more likely to report a number of other symptoms including joint pain, palpitations, dizziness, and headaches, pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression than non-Covid-19 participants.
Long Covid participants also more often reported problems with their mobility or activity levels than those without long Covid.
The authors also acknowledge limitations such as lack of control group of hospital survivors unrelated to Covid-19 infection.
The team emphasised the need for follow-up of Covid survivors, particularly those with symptoms of long Covid.
"There is a clear need to provide continued support to a significant proportion of people who've had Covid-19, and to understand how vaccines, emerging treatments, and variants affect long-term health outcomes," Cao said.
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दिल्ली में होम-आइसोलेशन में रहे 92.3 प्रतिशत कोरोना रोगियों ने माना है कि योग ने कोरोना से उबरने में उनकी मदद की है। दिल्ली में कोरोना संक्रमितों के लिए 'दिल्ली की योगशाला' नाम से ऑनलाइन योग क्लासेस शुरू की गई थीं। लगभग 4600 से ज्यादा संक्रमितों को इसका लाभ हुआ है।
इस फ्री योग कक्षाओं से संक्रमितों को हुए वास्तविक फायदे की जांच करने के लिए दिल्ली फर्मास्यूटिकल साइंसेज एंड रिसर्च यूनिवर्सिटी द्वारा आईसीएमआर के सीटीआरआई के तहत पंजीकृत एक रिसर्च किया गया। इस रिसर्च में शामिल 92.3 प्रतिशत लोगों ने माना कि संक्रमण के दौरान योग करने से उन्हें कोरोना के सभी लक्षणों में सुधार देखने को मिला और उन्हें सांस फूलने जैसी समस्या नहीं हुई।
इस बाबत उपमुख्यमंत्री मनीष सिसोदिया ने कहा कि दिल्ली की योगशाला कार्यक्रम, दिल्ली की जनता को योग के माध्यम से स्वस्थ रखने की एक अनूठी पहल है। उन्होंने कहा कि ये बेहद खुशी की बात है कि जिस उद्देश्य के तहत दिल्ली की योगशाला कार्यक्रम की शुरूआत की गई थी वो पूरा हो रहा है और लोगों को इसका फायदा हो रहा है। उन्होंने कहा कि इस कार्यक्रम के तहत कोरोना के दौरान संक्रमितों को फ्री ऑनलाइन योग कक्षाएं उपलब्ध करवाई गई, जिससे न केवल उन्हें कोरोना से उबरने में मदद मिली बल्कि उनके खांसी, सर्दी, शरीर में दर्द, सांस फूलना आदि जैसे लक्षणों से भी राहत मिली।
रिसर्च में शामिल ज्यादातर मरीज 30 से 70 साल के बीच
92.3 प्रतिशत रोगियों ने माना योग करने से कोरोना के लक्षणों में सुधार दिखा। ज्यादातर मरीजों ने माना कि उन्हें संक्रमण के दौरान योग करने से सांस फूलने जैसी समस्या का सामना नहीं करना पड़ा। योग करने से अधिकांश मरीज 5 से 7 दिनों के भीतर कोरोना से उबरे। योग करने वाले केवल 21 संक्रमित ही कोई दवाई ले रहे थे, केवल 26.2 प्रतिशत का ही टीकाकरण हुआ था। ज्यादातर संक्रमितों ने माना योग करने से उन्हें खांसी, सर्दी, शरीर में दर्द, नींद सांस फूलना आदि से जैसे लक्षण से राहत मिली।
संक्रमितों ने माना ऑनलाइन योग क्लासेस ने उनके अकेलेपन को खत्म करने के साथ मेंटल हेल्थ को भी बेहतर करने का काम किया। (एजेंसी)
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London: Regular high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercises such as squats, sprints, and pedalling can improve the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by impacting on several metabolic pathways in the body, finds a new study.
A team from the University of Eastern Finland found that regular HIIT exercise over a period of 12 weeks significantly decreased the study participants' fasting glucose and waist circumference, and improved their maximum oxygen consumption rate and maximum achieved workload.
These positive effects were associated with alterations in the abundance of a number of metabolites. In particular, exercise altered amino acid metabolism in adipose tissue, according to the study published in Scientific Reports.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, affecting approximately 25 per cent of the world's population. Being largely asymptomatic, the disease may progress from the accumulation of fat in liver cells to liver inflammation and liver cirrhosis.
NAFLD is associated with obesity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, such as Type 2 diabetes and abnormal blood lipid concentrations. The accumulation of fat in the liver can be reduced by weight loss and a health-promoting diet.
Exercise is an integral part of the treatment of NAFLD. The benefits of exercise may relate not only to weight management, but also to alterations in the metabolites produced by the body and gut microbes, whose role in fatty liver disease remains poorly understood.
The study involved 46 subjects diagnosed with NAFLD, who were divided into an exercise intervention group that had a HIIT session twice a week, plus an independent training session once a week for 12 weeks, and into a control group that did not increase exercise during the study.
The most significant alterations were observed in amino acids and their derivatives, lipids, and bile acids.
The levels of various gut microbial metabolites were also altered as a result of exercise, which is suggestive of changes in the composition of gut microbes, or in their function.
Among these metabolites, an increased amount of indolelactic acid, for example, can strengthen the intestinal mucosa, immune defence, and glucose balance.
Based on the findings, exercise can have a beneficial effect on many factors contributing to disease in patients with NAFLD, even without weight loss and dietary changes, the researchers said. Adipose tissue seems to play a key role in these effects. (Agency)
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New York: People hospitalised during the pandemic both for Covid and other conditions have a higher rate of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections compared to patients hospitalised before the pandemic, according to a study.
An estimated 1.2 million people worldwide died in 2019 from antibiotic-resistant infections, and this number is predicted to increase ten-fold by 2050.
There have been studies reporting that the pandemic was associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) secondary infections, possibly due to the increase in the use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 patients and disruptions to infection prevention and control practices in overwhelmed health systems.
The study, presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) being held in Portugal, evaluated the pandemic's impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 271 hospitals across the US.
The researchers assessed AMR rates per 100 hospital admissions before and during the Covid pandemic, and examined whether drug-resistant infections were acquired in the community-onset setting (defined as a culture collected less than two days after admission) or in the hospital-onset setting (more than two days after admission).
In total, 1,789,458 patients were admitted to the hospital in the pre-pandemic period and 3,729,208 during the pandemic.
The number of patients admitted to the hospital with at least one AMR infection was 63,263 in the pre-pandemic period and 129,410 during the pandemic.
Patients who tested positive or negative for Covid had higher levels of AMR than patients before the pandemic, 4.92 per 100 admissions and 4.11 per 100 admissions, respectively.
For hospital-associated infections, the AMR rate was 0.77 per 100 admissions before the pandemic and 0.86 per 100 admissions during the pandemic, and highest at 2.19 per 100 admissions in patients with Covid-19.
When looking at community-onset infections, the AMR rate was 2.76 per 100 admissions in the pre-pandemic period, and 2.61 per 100 admissions during the pandemic.
"These new data highlight the importance of closely monitoring the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance rates, said Dr Karri Bauer from the US pharmaceutical company Merck.
"It is particularly worrying that antibiotic resistance has been rising during the pandemic in both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. Hospital-acquired infections are a major concern, with antimicrobial resistance rates significantly higher during the pandemic than before," he added. (Agency)
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Six in 10 people with SARS-CoV-2 still have at least one symptom of long Covid a year later, with fatigue, shortness of breath and irritability being the most common, a new study has shown.
The study, being presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) in Portugal, found that Covid-19 symptoms that don't clear up after 15 weeks are likely to last at least a year.
An estimated 25-40 per cent of people with Covid-19 develop long Covid, persisting symptoms that can affect multiple organs and include mental health problems.
Most of the data to date, however, is based on patients who were hospitalised with Covid-19 and it isn't clear how it applies to Covid-19 cases more generally.
To find out more, Aurelie Fischer and colleagues at the Luxembourg Institute of Health in Luxembourg, surveyed almost 300 people a year after they were diagnosed with Covid.
The 289 participants (50.2 per cent women) had an average age of 40.2 years and were divided in three groups, based on the severity of their initial infection: asymptomatic, mild and moderate/severe Covid-19.
They were asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire about whether they were experiencing 64 common long Covid-related symptoms.
A third (34.3 per cent) were experiencing fatigue a year on, 12.9 per cent said respiratory symptoms were affecting their quality of life and more than half (54.2 per cent) had ongoing sleep problems.
Participants who had moderate/severe Covid-19 were twice as likely to still have at least one symptom a year on than those whose initial infection was asymptomatic. Having had moderate/severe Covid-19 was also associated with more sleep problems after a year than being asymptomatic (63.8 per cent vs. 38.6 per cent).
"Participants with a mild form of the acute illness were more likely than those who'd been asymptomatic to have at least one symptom at one year, and to have sleep problems, but to a lesser extent than those with a moderate or severe acute illness," Fischer said.
One in seven participants (14.2 per cent) said they could not envisage coping with their symptoms long-term.
Further, the analysis also revealed that some groups of symptoms tend to occur together, suggesting that there are multiple different types of long Covid.
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