New Delhi, May 5 (IANS) Beware of fake life saving drugs. Instead of Remdesivir, which is required for critically ill Covid patients, similar looking vials of Monocef or Zetri, a low cost antibiotic injection, are being sold in the black market.Criminal gangs and swindlers active in Delhi-NCR and Western Uttar Pradesh are reportedly buying Monocef vials in bulk, each piece costing around Rs 52, and selling them to desperate customers for over Rs 5,500 to Rs 10,000 apiece.Taking note of such rackets gradually reaching the smaller towns and rural areas, the Uttar Pradesh Police have alerted all the districts, particularly in western and central parts of the state, to keep a strict vigil on the stockists, distributors and wholesalers of medicines. "We have raided over 68,000 places to seize genuine or fake drugs being sold in the black markets in the past few days. In a bid to punish such accused persons harshly, cases are being registered under the National Security Act," Prashant Kumar, Additional Director General of Police (ADG), Law and Order, UP, told IANS.Acting on specific inputs, the Delhi Police on Tuesday unearthed a gang involved in selling fake vials of Remdesivir for Rs 5,500 each. The gang, which was active in the Nand Nagri area of the national capital, had purchased low cost Monocef injections in bulk. "They got labels of Remdesivir printed from a local press fixed them on the Monocef vials. One Dhanesh Kumar from Ashok Nagar and Amit from Meet Nagar were involved in the racket. Both have been arrested. We are questioning them to ascertain how widespread the racket was," said an officer of the Delhi Police.And it's not only in Delhi-NCR and its neighbouring states where such rackets are thriving. Fake Remdesivir injections are being sold in far off places like Gujarat and Odisha. In a major crackdown on such rackets, the Detection and Crime Branch of Ahmedabad Police arrested seven persons last week who were selling antibiotics as Remdesivir. Fake labels of Hetero and Jubiliant, two major pharma companies manufacturing Remdesivir, were also seized from the accused persons. Even in Maharashtra where cases are multiplying in smaller towns, the merchants of death are reportedly selling fake drugs to the needy attendants of Covid patients.When asked how cheaper injections like Monocef are being sold in bulk to criminal gangs, the General Secretary of All India Organisation of Chemist and Druggist (AIOCD), Rajiv Singhal, said that instructions have been given to all chemists to keep a tab on the customers who demand injections in bulk. "It is unfortunate if some criminals are selling antibiotics in the name of Remdesivir. We will take all measures to put a check on this crime, though as a practice we ensure that bulk drugs are sold only to the bonafide customers," said Singhal, a key functionary of AIOCD, which represents over 9.50 lakh chemists across India.To prevent any misuse of such fake drugs resulting in possible fatality of critical patients admitted to ICUs, leading Delhi radiologist Sandeep Sharma suggested that attendants should note the batch number of the vials for future reference. "In some cases, attendants who are not allowed to enter Covid hospitals are provided videos of injections being administered to ensure that the right dose is being given to the patients," Sharma said, adding: "Yet I would say that our nursing staff are very reliable and they take every possible care of the patients. A few exceptions relating to use of fake injections on patients which were reported from some hospitals should not worry the people."
New York - Exposure to antibiotics in utero and infancy can lead to an irreversible loss of regulatory T-cells in the colon, a valuable component of the immune system's response toward allergens in later life, after only six months, finds a new research.
T cell is a type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens.
According to the study, published in the journal mBio, it is already known that the use of antibiotics early in life disrupts the intestinal microbiota, the trillions of beneficial microorganisms that live in and on our bodies, that play a crucial role in the healthy maturation of the immune system and the prevention of diseases, such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.
However, less is known about how disruption of the microbiota, which produce short chain fatty acids that regulate T-cells, effects T-cells in the colon.
"By studying the exposure to newborns through lactating mothers, we see how the offspring acquire their mothers' antibiotic-impacted microbiota, which compromises their ability to generate a pool of CD41 T cells in the colon, resulting in long-term damage," said researcher Martin Blaser from the Rutgers University.
"The consequences persist into adulthood, compromising the body's ability to turn off allergic responses," Blaser added.
For the study, based on a mouse model, the team looked at fetal and newborn exposure to antibiotics through the mother in the weeks immediately preceding and after birth, the time when microbial communities assemble and are prone to disruptions, to investigate how this reduction in beneficial bacteria affects neonatal immune system development.
These effects were specific to the colon and not observed in the lungs, upper gastrointestinal tract or spleen, the researchers said. (IANS)
Amaravati- The Andhra Pradesh government has seized some stocks of antibiotic medicines which were not manufactured up to the standard required.
"These are not fake medicines but medicines which were not manufactured up to the standard," AP Drugs Control Administration Director General S. Ravi Shankar Narayan told IANS.
DCA has seized different strengths and combinations of substandard manufactured antibiotic Azithromycin from Rajahmundry, Bhimavaram and Vijayawada.
"It is not of the standard quality in the sense that it doesn't comply with the label claim. Composition is not as per the claims," said Narayan.
According to him, the DCA is currently engaged in tracing back the medicine to the dealers with an aim to ultimately reach the manufacturer.
"Once we come to know of the manufacturer and get hold of him, we will be recording his statement and then filing a complaint," he said.
Finding the actual manufacturer is a step by step backward process which, Narayan said, will take some effort and time.
He said DCA directly cannot straightaway go to the manufacturer on the label of the medicine as the label itself can be fake.
"Suppose if a company has directly made it and sold it, I will be reaching the original company. If somebody else in between has manufactured and sold it, we will be stopping in the middle and holding him responsible," noted Narayan.
Meanwhile, all the stocks of the faulty antibiotic existing with the distributors and retailers have been recalled, and seized and the court intimated.
Narayan, a senior Indian Revenue Service (IRS) officer, said the retailing pharmaceutical outlets have been issued showcase notices as to why due diligence was not done by them while procuring these stocks of Azithromycin.
Meanwhile, the DCA dispatched two teams of officials to Uttarakhand in search of some dealers, even as the manufacturer's address has been traced to the northern state. (IANS)
New York- The overuse of antibiotics occurs due to the mistaken widespread belief that they are beneficial for a broad array of conditions and because many physicians are willing to prescribe antibiotics if patients ask for the medication, a new study suggests.
In children, improper antibiotic use can alter the microbiome while their immunological, metabolic and neural systems are developing, suggests the study published in the journal BioEssays.
And, in adults, there is increasing evidence that antibiotics may enhance risk for metabolic and neoplastic diseases, including diabetes, kidney stones and growths in the colon and rectum that can lead to cancer.
The global use of antibiotics between 2000 and 2015 increased 39 per cent, with a 77 per cent increase in low- and middle-income countries, said lead author Martin Blaser from the Rutgers University in the US.
Antibiotic overuse is when antibiotics are used when they are not needed. Antibiotics are one of the great advances in medicine. But overprescribing them has led to resistant bacteria that are harder to treat.
For the study, the research team reviewed more than 200 peer-reviewed studies to examine the causes behind antibiotic overuse, which can lead harmful bacteria to become drug-resistant and cause harmful effects on the microbiome, the collection of beneficial germs that live in and on our bodies.
Studies in the US, UK and China found numerous online pharmacies selling antibiotics without a prescription. This is also a major problem in Iow- to middle-income countries, where 60 per cent of antibiotics are sold without prescription, often by untrained medical practitioners.
The researchers said that clinicians need to be better educated about the long-term effects on the microbiome and learn about better ways to speak with their patients about antibiotic risks and benefits.
They also need to improve their communication about the consequences of antibiotic treatment and identify alternatives. (IANS)
New York, Jan 2 (IANS) Researchers have discovered a new class of compounds that combine direct antibiotic killing of pan drug-resistant bacterial pathogens with a simultaneous rapid immune response for combating antimicrobial resistance.The research, published in the journal Nature, comes at a time when the list of bacteria that are becoming resistant to treatment with all available antibiotic options is growing and few new drugs are in the pipeline, creating a pressing need for new classes of antibiotics to prevent public health crises."We took a creative, double-pronged strategy to develop new molecules that can kill difficult-to-treat infections while enhancing the natural host immune response," said Farokh Dotiwala, Assistant Professor in the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, US.Dotiwala is the lead author of the effort to identify a new generation of antimicrobials named dual-acting immuno-antibiotics (DAIAs).Existing antibiotics target essential bacterial functions, including nucleic acid and protein synthesis, building of the cell membrane, and metabolic pathways.However, bacteria can acquire drug resistance by mutating the bacterial target the antibiotic is directed against, inactivating the drugs or pumping them out."We reasoned that harnessing the immune system to simultaneously attack bacteria on two different fronts makes it hard for them to develop resistance," said Dotiwala.The researchers focused on a metabolic pathway that is essential for most bacteria but absent in humans, making it an ideal target for antibiotic development.This pathway, called methyl-D-erythritol phosphate (MEP) or non-mevalonate pathway, is responsible for biosynthesis of isoprenoids -- molecules required for cell survival in most pathogenic bacteria.The lab targeted the IspH enzyme, an essential enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, as a way to block this pathway and kill the microbes.Given the broad presence of IspH in the bacterial world, this approach may target a wide range of bacteria.Researchers used computer modeling to screen several million commercially available compounds for their ability to bind with the enzyme, and selected the most potent ones that inhibited IspH function as starting points for drug discovery.The team demonstrated that the IspH inhibitors stimulated the immune system with more potent bacterial killing activity and specificity than current best-in-class antibiotics when tested in vitro on clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including a wide range of pathogenic gram negative and gram positive bacteria.In preclinical models of gram negative bacterial infection, the bactericidal effects of the IspH inhibitors outperformed traditional pan antibiotics.All compounds tested were shown to be nontoxic to human cells, said the study.--IANSgb/rs
New York - Antibiotics administered to children younger than two are associated with several ongoing illnesses or conditions, ranging from allergies to obesity, warn researchers.
For the study, published in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the research team from Mayo Clinic in the US analysed data from over 14,500 children.
About 70 per cent of the children had received at least one treatment with antibiotics for illness before age 2.
The findings showed that children receiving multiple antibiotic treatments were more likely to have multiple illnesses or conditions later in childhood.
Types and frequency of illness varied depending on age, type of medication, dose and number of doses. There also were some differences between boys and girls.
Conditions associated with early use of antibiotics included asthma, allergic rhinitis, weight issues and obesity, food allergies, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, celiac disease, and atopic dermatitis.
The authors speculate that even though antibiotics may only transiently affect the microbiome, the collection of microbes in the body, this may have long-term health consequences.
"These findings offer the opportunity to target future research to determine more reliable and safer approaches to timing, dosing and types of antibiotics for children in this age group," said study author Nathan LeBrasseur from the Mayo Clinic.
While recent data show an increase in some of the childhood conditions involved in the study, experts are not sure why.
Other than the issue of multi-drug resistance, antibiotics have been presumed safe by most paediatricians.
Researchers also noted the ultimate goal is to provide practical guidelines for physicians on the safest way to use antibiotics early in life. (IANS)