New York: People hospitalised during the pandemic both for Covid and other conditions have a higher rate of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections compared to patients hospitalised before the pandemic, according to a study.
An estimated 1.2 million people worldwide died in 2019 from antibiotic-resistant infections, and this number is predicted to increase ten-fold by 2050.
There have been studies reporting that the pandemic was associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) secondary infections, possibly due to the increase in the use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 patients and disruptions to infection prevention and control practices in overwhelmed health systems.
The study, presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) being held in Portugal, evaluated the pandemic's impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 271 hospitals across the US.
The researchers assessed AMR rates per 100 hospital admissions before and during the Covid pandemic, and examined whether drug-resistant infections were acquired in the community-onset setting (defined as a culture collected less than two days after admission) or in the hospital-onset setting (more than two days after admission).
In total, 1,789,458 patients were admitted to the hospital in the pre-pandemic period and 3,729,208 during the pandemic.
The number of patients admitted to the hospital with at least one AMR infection was 63,263 in the pre-pandemic period and 129,410 during the pandemic.
Patients who tested positive or negative for Covid had higher levels of AMR than patients before the pandemic, 4.92 per 100 admissions and 4.11 per 100 admissions, respectively.
For hospital-associated infections, the AMR rate was 0.77 per 100 admissions before the pandemic and 0.86 per 100 admissions during the pandemic, and highest at 2.19 per 100 admissions in patients with Covid-19.
When looking at community-onset infections, the AMR rate was 2.76 per 100 admissions in the pre-pandemic period, and 2.61 per 100 admissions during the pandemic.
"These new data highlight the importance of closely monitoring the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance rates, said Dr Karri Bauer from the US pharmaceutical company Merck.
"It is particularly worrying that antibiotic resistance has been rising during the pandemic in both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. Hospital-acquired infections are a major concern, with antimicrobial resistance rates significantly higher during the pandemic than before," he added. (Agency)
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Six in 10 people with SARS-CoV-2 still have at least one symptom of long Covid a year later, with fatigue, shortness of breath and irritability being the most common, a new study has shown.
The study, being presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) in Portugal, found that Covid-19 symptoms that don't clear up after 15 weeks are likely to last at least a year.
An estimated 25-40 per cent of people with Covid-19 develop long Covid, persisting symptoms that can affect multiple organs and include mental health problems.
Most of the data to date, however, is based on patients who were hospitalised with Covid-19 and it isn't clear how it applies to Covid-19 cases more generally.
To find out more, Aurelie Fischer and colleagues at the Luxembourg Institute of Health in Luxembourg, surveyed almost 300 people a year after they were diagnosed with Covid.
The 289 participants (50.2 per cent women) had an average age of 40.2 years and were divided in three groups, based on the severity of their initial infection: asymptomatic, mild and moderate/severe Covid-19.
They were asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire about whether they were experiencing 64 common long Covid-related symptoms.
A third (34.3 per cent) were experiencing fatigue a year on, 12.9 per cent said respiratory symptoms were affecting their quality of life and more than half (54.2 per cent) had ongoing sleep problems.
Participants who had moderate/severe Covid-19 were twice as likely to still have at least one symptom a year on than those whose initial infection was asymptomatic. Having had moderate/severe Covid-19 was also associated with more sleep problems after a year than being asymptomatic (63.8 per cent vs. 38.6 per cent).
"Participants with a mild form of the acute illness were more likely than those who'd been asymptomatic to have at least one symptom at one year, and to have sleep problems, but to a lesser extent than those with a moderate or severe acute illness," Fischer said.
One in seven participants (14.2 per cent) said they could not envisage coping with their symptoms long-term.
Further, the analysis also revealed that some groups of symptoms tend to occur together, suggesting that there are multiple different types of long Covid.
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Lucknow: Students at the Lucknow University (LU) will now have a new option for an under-graduate course in Naturopathic and Yogic Science (BNYS) from the academic session 2022-23.
According to LU spokesperson Durgesh Srivastava, the duration of the course will be 5.5 years. Candidates can apply for admission on 60 seats of the course that will be offered under LU's Institute of Yogic Studies.
"The application process for the course is the same as other UG courses. Students will have to apply online on LU's official website. The last date to apply for admission is May 31," he said and added that a candidate should have at least 50 per cent marks in biology in Class 12 to be eligible to apply for admission in the course.
The admission will be on the basis of the merit of entrance test.
Students, who are appearing for the intermediate exam this year, can also apply and appear in the entrance exam. The age of the student should not be less than 17 years at the time of admission. The five years of the course will include one year of mandatory internship."
Srivastava said the BNYS course is related to medical science and has high employability.
In this, the study of body structure, body mechanism, changes in the body during disease and natural methods of identifying diseases such as facial morphology and others will be done.
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लखनऊ: लखनऊ विश्वविद्यालय (एलयू) के छात्रों के पास अब शैक्षणिक सत्र 2022-23 से प्राकृतिक चिकित्सा और योगिक विज्ञान (बीएनवाईएस) में स्नातक पाठ्यक्रम के लिए एक नया विकल्प होगा। एलयू के प्रवक्ता दुर्गेश श्रीवास्तव के मुताबिक कोर्स की अवधि साढ़े पांच साल होगी। एलयू के इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ योगिक स्टडीज के तहत दी जाने वाली कोर्स की 60 सीटों पर प्रवेश के लिए उम्मीदवार आवेदन कर सकते हैं।
उन्होंने कहा कि पाठ्यक्रम के लिए आवेदन प्रक्रिया अन्य यूजी पाठ्यक्रमों की तरह ही है। छात्रों को एलयू की आधिकारिक वेबसाइट पर ऑनलाइन आवेदन करना होगा। प्रवेश के लिए आवेदन करने की अंतिम तिथि 31 मई है। उन्होंने कहा कि एक उम्मीदवार के पास पाठ्यक्रम में प्रवेश करने और आवेदन करने के लिए कक्षा 12 में जीव विज्ञान में 50 प्रतिशत अंक होना अनिवार्य है। प्रवेश, प्रवेश परीक्षा की योग्यता के आधार पर होगा।
जो छात्र इस साल इंटरमीडिएट की परीक्षा दे रहे हैं, वे भी आवेदन कर सकते हैं और प्रवेश परीक्षा में शामिल हो सकते हैं। प्रवेश के समय छात्र की आयु 17 वर्ष से कम नहीं होनी चाहिए। पांच साल के कोर्स में एक साल की अनिवार्य इंटर्नशिप शामिल होगी।
श्रीवास्तव ने कहा कि बीएनवाईएस पाठ्यक्रम चिकित्सा विज्ञान से संबंधित है और इसमें उच्च रोजगार क्षमता है।
इसमें शरीर की संरचना, शरीर क्रियाविधि, रोग के दौरान शरीर में होने वाले परिवर्तन तथा रोगों की पहचान करने के प्राकृतिक तरीकों जैसे चेहरे की आकृति विज्ञान आदि का अध्ययन किया जाएगा।
यह भी पढ़े► आयुर्वेदिक व यूनानी तिब्बिया कॉलेज में पोर्टेबल इंटीग्रेटेड केयर सेंटर की शुरूआत
अमेरिकी शोधकर्ताओं ने पाया है कि लॉन्ग कोविड-19 के लिए असामान्य रूप से कमजोर इम्यून सिस्टम जिम्मेदार हो सकता है। कोविड बीमारी से उबरने वाले व्यक्तियों में कई लक्षण बने रहते हैं, जैसे कि थकान, मानसिक आलस्य और सांस की तकलीफ। ये सभी लक्षण महीनों तक बने रह सकते हैं।
इसे आम तौर पर लॉन्ग कोविड के रूप में वर्गीकृत किया जाता है, हालांकि लक्षण व्यापक रूप से अलग-अलग होते हैं। हालांकि, इसके कारणों की सीमित समझ इलाज करने के तरीके खोजना खासतौर पर कठिन बना देती है।
कैलिफोर्निया विश्वविद्यालय-लॉस एंजिल्स के शोधकतार्ओं ने लेरोनलिमैब का एक छोटा परीक्षण किया। जिसमें पाया गया कि लॉन्ग कोविड वाले कुछ लोगों में कोविड 19 से उबरने के बाद वास्तव में सक्रिय प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली हो सकती है। यूसीएलए के डेविड गेफेन स्कूल ऑफ मेडिसिन में प्रोफेसर डॉ ओटो यांग ने समीक्षा की।
आठ हफ्तों के दौरान उन्होंने लॉन्ग कोविड से जुड़े लक्षणों में होने वाले बदलाव को ट्रैक किया। जिसमें गंध, स्वाद, मांसपेशियों, जोड़ों में दर्द और मस्तिष्क का नुकसान शामिल था।
शोधकर्ताओं ने मूल रूप से सोचा था कि एंटीबॉडी के साथ सीसीआर 5 को ब्लॉक करने से कोविड -19 संक्रमण के बाद अतिसक्रिय प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली की गतिविधि कम हो जाएगी।
यांग ने कहा, लेकिन हमने इसके ठीक विपरीत पाया।
यांग ने कहा, यह नई परिकल्पना की ओर जाता है कि कुछ व्यक्तियों में लॉन्ग कोविड प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली के दबने से संबंधित है, लेकिन अतिसक्रिय नहीं है। यह एंटीबॉडी कोशिका की सतह पर सीसीआर 5 अभिव्यक्ति को स्थिर कर सकती है, जिससे अन्य प्रतिरक्षा रिसेप्टर्स या कार्यों का अपचयन होता है।
यह भी पढ़े► 'एक्सई' वैरिएंट: नाक बहना, छींकना और गले में खराश हैं प्रमुख लक्षण
The SARS-CoV-2 virus can directly infect a specialised type of kidney cell, explaining why acute kidney injury is one of the main complications observed in patients with severe Covid-19, finds a study.
Primarily known to infect cells in the respiratory tract, physicians were surprised to see that many patients, especially those with severe Covid, were also developing injuries to their kidneys.
"It was shocking to hear doctors describe how patients who were healthy suddenly developed kidney injury and needed to go on dialysis after contracting SARS-CoV-2," said Samira Musah, assistant professor of biomedical engineering and medicine at Duke University.
"It was clear that the virus was doing something to the kidneys, but it was so early in the pandemic that nobody was sure what was going on," she added.
For the new study, described in the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, the team worked worked with a pseudovirus version of SARS-CoV-2 on a previously developed model of podocyte cell, a specific type of kidney cell that helps control the removal of toxins and waste from the blood.
When the pseudovirus was introduced to the podocyte cell model, the team discovered that the spike protein of the virus could directly bind to numerous receptors on the surface of podocytes.
"We found that the virus was especially adept at binding to two key receptors on the surface of the podocytes, and these receptors are abundant in these kidney cells," explained Titilola Kalejaiye, a postdoctoral fellow at Duke.
"There was a strong uptake of the virus initially, and we also found that when you increased the dose of the virus, the uptake would increase even further. The virus seemed to have a strong affinity for these kidney cells."
Further, the team tested their podocyte model with the real SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Just like with the pseudovirus, the team observed that the live version of the virus had a strong affinity for podocytes.
Once the virus infected the cells, it damaged the podocytes, causing their long, finger-like structures, which help filter blood, to retract and shrivel. If the injuries to the cells were too severe, the podocytes would die.
"Beyond the structural damage, we saw that the virus could hijack the machinery of the podocytes to produce additional viral particles that could spread to infect additional cells," said Maria Blasi, Assistant Professor of medicine at Duke.
Now the team hopes to expand their work to study how the different variants of SARS-CoV-2 behave in kidney cells.
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