London- Adolescents who had received a mental health disorder diagnosis were often excluded from the labour market and education as young adults, finds a new study.
The study indicated that almost 11 percent of adolescents who had received a psychiatric diagnosis were excluded from the education and labour market for at least five years in their early adulthood.
"Vocational rehabilitation and tight collaboration between psychiatry and social services are important for enabling adolescents suffering from mental health problems to access the labour market," said lead author David Gyllenberg from the University of Turku (Finland).
For the study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, the team included 55,273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration.
The results are concerning because they highlight the link between mental health disorders and long-term exclusion from education and labour market.
In the study, long-term exclusion was defined as a period spent outside education or paid employment lasting a minimum of five years.
The link was particularly strong with those teenagers who had not completed their upper secondary education and who had been diagnosed with a mental health disorder.
Almost half of these teenagers who had experienced psychosis and almost three-quarters of teenagers who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder experienced long-term exclusion from education and labour market in their early adulthood.
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Migraine is a debilitating neurological disease, ranking consistently among the top 10 leading causes of years lived with disability, worldwide. The main symptom of migraine is an enduring headache, along with symptoms such as severe pain on one side of the head or throbbing pain, sensitivity to light and sound, and nausea. Despite being a very common headache disorder that affects roughly 15 percent of the adult population worldwide, it remains inadequately understood and most neglected.
In Delhi, approximately 25 per cent of the population suffers from migraines, every year.
While migraine is an invisible condition, it can severely impact individuals across personal, professional and social domains, thus affecting the overall quality of life and productivity. Work-from-home, or the 'new normal,' has drastically impacted the lives of people suffering from migraines from an inability to concentrate at work to missed workdays. It has become even more urgent to ensure that individuals have the understanding and tools to effectively manage migraines.
There is a lack of understanding amongst people about the severity of migraines. In a study we recently conducted, about 50 to 60 per cent of migraineurs were undiagnosed, despite recurrent headaches. Because migraine falls on a spectrum, ranging from infrequent or mild attacks to recurrent ones, many pass it off as merely a headache'. With busy work-from-home schedules, paired with fear of contracting COVID-19 infection and difficulty in accessing in-person care, people are avoiding seeking medical help for the condition, instead attributing symptoms to associated comorbidities, such as stress or depression."
He continued, "Financial worries due to job loss or salary cuts also contribute to aggravated migraine attacks, which is more noticeable recently. The effects of migraine on one's quality of life also reportedly worsened, particularly for many migraineurs working as essential healthcare workers at this time.
Symptom neglect and failure to treat the condition can lead to migraines becoming chronic. A fundamental need is to recognize migraine as a serious condition with severe disability and adopt a holistic treatment approach. Early detection can be a key enabler of a smoother patient journey and an improved quality of life."
Here are 5 ways to manage your migraine while working from home:
Identify Risk Factors and Monitor Triggers
Migraines can begin at any age but tend to peak during one's prime productive years. Moreover, women are three times more likely to be affected than men, with prevalence peaking between the ages of 25 and 55 years.
Long hours of working from home, along with longer screen times, disrupted sleep schedules and irregular eating habits can increase stress levels. For migraineurs, such changes can become migraine triggers, exacerbating their condition. Identifying personal triggers can help individuals manage their migraines better.
Make The Right Choice for Diet and Lifestyle
Working from home can be hard, but a daily routine that optimizes your physical and mental health can help keep your migraine at bay. Eating healthy meals at appropriate times or consuming small, frequent meals throughout the day are associated with less frequent migraine headaches. Taking breaks from work at regular intervals can help you eat right and reduce eye strain owing to excessive screen use. Making modifications to your lifestyle, including smoking cessation and reduced alcohol consumption, and maintaining optimal sleeping habits and exercising regularly can be key to manage migraines. These also benefit migraine prevention and treatment.
Talk to An Expert
It is important to consult a medical specialist when you are experiencing severe headaches that disrupt your daily routine. A lot of migraineurs hesitate to seek medical help. This could be due to several reasons lack of understanding of migraine severity, lack of time due to hectic work-from-home schedules, or recently, due to a reduction in-person clinic consultations owing to the fear of Covid-19 infection. However, consulting a neurologist, even via teleconsultations, is a necessary step to diagnose your condition and understand the available options for acute and chronic management of migraine, including preventive treatment. With evidence-based information on effects across migraine intensity reduction, quality of life and ease of use, neurologists can guide you on the most suitable treatment option to prevent or reduce your migraine episodes.
Track Your Migraines
It is a good idea to maintain a diary (or download a migraine tracker app), to record the time and severity of your migraine attacks, symptoms, daily diet, exercise routines, and medications and side effects. This can help identify triggers and patterns. It can also prompt meaningful conversations with your doctor, contributing to a more holistic treatment plan, personalized to suit your work schedule.
Seek Support From Your Family, Friends or Colleagues
Living with migraines can make one feel helpless, distressed and misunderstood. But talking to your friends and family will help them understand your condition better. Having an open conversation about your migraine with your employer is a good idea, particularly to work out a schedule, with specific routine adjustments to mitigate triggers. This can help you be productive and healthy while working from home. Employers can also take the initiative -- arranging wellness programs for employees to raise awareness about migraines and how to effectively manage them at work and enhance productivity.
Migraine attacks can be challenging. Changes to your daily routine and active communication about your condition with your employer, after consulting a neurologist, can help you better manage migraines as you work from home.
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The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland located at the base of the neck plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the body. It also regulates multiple functions, including energy levels, weight, heart rate and mood. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the needs of the body.
Despite the high prevalence, thyroid disorders, along with other non-communicable diseases, remain neglected. A study conducted across eight cities in India suggests that nearly one-third of people living with hypothyroidism experience the disorder but are unaware of it due to a lack of diagnosis.
Highlighting the need for timely diagnosis of thyroid-related conditions, Manoj Chadha, Senior Consultant Endocrinologist, HOPE & CARE Hospital, Vashi, Navi Mumbai said, "In Mumbai alone, we have seen 2.86 per cent cases of hypothyroidism go undiagnosed. Adults who are aged 35 years and above, pregnant, and middle-aged women, in particular, are at high risk and may suffer additional complications if a thyroid disorder is left untreated. Undetected hypothyroidism results in increased vulnerability to comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension."
He continued, "The pathophysiological association between Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and thyroid dysfunction is believed to be the result of an interplay between various biochemical, genetic, and hormonal malfunctions. Poorly managed T2DM can lead to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes in diabetics.11 As a result, it increases the cardiovascular risk in T2DM. This can only be reduced with frequent screening to ensure timely diagnosis, which in turn will drive treatment and disease management for hypothyroidism at an early stage."
Here are 4 reasons why women should be aware of thyroid disorders-
Women are three times more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men- Moreover, hypothyroidism is especially common among women especially during child-bearing age (although women of all ages are at risk). Women with high-risk factors for hypothyroidism should particularly be encouraged to undergo screening.
These factors include- Residing in an area with moderate-severe iodine insufficiency, obesity, history of thyroid dysfunction or presence of goitre in the individual or a first-degree relative, history of recurrent miscarriages or pre-term delivery, infertility, or autoimmune diseases (Type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, Coeliac disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis).
Elusive signs & symptoms- Don't suffer silently: Women tend to ignore their health and visit a doctor only when extremely ill or experiencing severe symptoms. Hypothyroidism symptoms, which tend to be subtle and non-specific, go under the radar. These include fatigue, excessive weight gain, constipation, dry skin, cold intolerance, lethargy, muscle cramps and puffy eyelids, which overlap with those of other disease areas or blend in with the rigours of everyday life. It is thus essential to get yourself screened, instead of waiting for multiple symptoms to persist. Take action proactively to alleviate any symptoms and avoid further complications.
The added risk of health complications- The potential consequences of thyroid disorders include more than just hair loss and weight fluctuations. If left untreated, thyroid disorders can prompt a number of health complications, from elevated cholesterol levels and depression to irregular menstrual cycles and a higher risk of infertility or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Thyroid disorders can also amplify or worsen symptoms of menopause. In more serious cases, they may even lead to cardiovascular or neurological complications, as well as diabetes.
Timely treatment to safeguard maternal and child health- Hypothyroidism can have worrying implications for pregnant women, if not adequately managed. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of anaemia, miscarriage, postpartum bleeding, pre-eclampsia, and placental abruption.
The thyroid hormone is also critical for the development of the fetal brain and nervous system, especially during the first trimester when the foetus depends on the mother's supply of the hormone. Thyroid disorders may also increase the risk of pre-term birth and low birth weight. Being aware and undergoing screening before and during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.
Women with hypothyroidism detected during pregnancy can speak to their endocrinologist to understand how to best manage their condition.
Commenting on the need to tackle thyroid disorders, Srirupa Das, Medical Director, Abbott said, "Abbott is committed to raising awareness on thyroid disorders in India. By educating people at higher risk, especially women, about the nature, prevalence and symptoms of the condition, we aim to encourage increased screening, which facilitates timely diagnosis and treatment. We are committed to continuing 'Making India Thyroid Aware' to empower people to pursue better health."
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New York, July 31 (IANS) A team of researchers has leveraged two new molecules, one of which is currently in clinical oncology trials, to devise a dual-drug therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD), without the side-effects or complications associated with current treatment regimens.The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, indicates that the approach had highly successful results in mice and may apply to other drugs that are often abused."Alcohol use disorder is really a process of maladapted learning and memory," said researcher Dorit Ron from the University of California, San Francisco."Alcohol is rewarding, and we learn to associate alcohol, and even the environment in which we drink the alcohol, with that reward," Ron added.At the root of the team's thinking is the idea that AUD and other substance abuse disorders are the results of reinforced pathways in the brain, and that those pathways can be blocked or redirected, ending cravings and habitual behaviour.The researcher said she is studying the role of the enzyme mTORC1 in the creation of those memories and associations, to create an effective drug that can treat the neurological causes of AUD.Ordinarily, mTORC1 is involved in brain plasticity, helping to create connections between neurons that reinforce memory. In previous work, Ron showed that consuming alcohol activates the enzyme in the brain.Ron has also shown that blocking the activity of mTORC1 with the FDA-approved compound rapamycin, used to treat some types of cancer and suppress the immune response in transplant patients, can halt cravings in mice engineered for alcohol use disorder.But mTORC1 contributes to a bevy of other bodily tasks related to metabolism and liver function, and people taking it for an extended period often develop liver toxicity, glucose intolerance, and other side effects.Ron believes that tackling addiction from a neurological perspective has potential for broad applications."We could see these side effects in mice who are taking rapamycin or RapaLink-1, and then when you give Rapablock, it's like magic, the side effects are gone," Ron noted.--IANSvc/arm
<br>Genetic Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type-1 ails this little boy from Rajasthan's Nagaur district. The disorder is characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy) in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles).His hapless parents are crying for help as Tanishk needs an injection worth Rs 16 crore. The parents are poor and hail from a small village. They pin their hope on crowdfunding and appeal to all who can afford to help them out.Shaitan Singh, the father of the kid visited Nagaur MP Hanuman Beniwal, who assured them all help and also spoke to the Superintendent of JK Lone Hospital in Jaipur and other paediatricians regarding Tanishk's treatment.The father told IANS: "Tanishk's life is incomplete without the said gene. The solution to all Tanishk's problems is just one injection, but the cost of this one injection is Rs 16 crore, which is not easy for us to buy. Tanishk is our only child, I work as a lawyer in a small town like Parbatsar.He said Tanishk's trouble started when he was four-five months old."We did not know about the disease at first, but later Priyanshu Mathur, our pediatrician at J.K. Lone Hospital Jaipur, said that Tanishk is suffering from SMA."Till now, we have been able to keep things under control for Tanihk with the help of exercise, so that all the muscles of his body remain active. Our family members take turns to make him exercise for three to four hours a day. His treatment is the world's most expensive injection Zolgensma," informed Singh.Three-year-old Ayansh Gupta from Hyderabad, who was battling rare spinal muscular atrophy, received the gift of life on June 9 as the money required for injection was raised for him through crowdfunding."Our hopes have increased ever since we came to know about Ayansh's story of 'rebirth'. This country belongs to the kind and compassionate people and I hope everyone will definitely help to save my son's life," said Deepika Kanwar with folded hands urging people to contribute so that her only son can live. --IANS<br>arc/in
Washington, July 13 (IANS) The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a new warning on the Johnson & Johnson Covid-19 vaccine, saying the jabhas been linked to a serious but rare side effect called Guillain-Barre syndrome.Guillain Barre syndrome is a neurological disorder in which the body's immune system damages nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis, Xinhua news agency reported citing the FDA as saying.The syndrome has occurred in some people who have received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, the FDA in a letter on Monday. In most of these people, symptoms began within 42 days following injections of the vaccine, it added.The chance of having this occur is very low, the agency said.About 100 preliminary reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome have been detected in vaccine recipients after the administration of 12.8 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson jab in the US, The Washington Post quoted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as saying in a statement.Of these reports, 95 were serious and required hospitalization, and one had dead.The cases have largely been reported about two weeks after vaccination and mostly in men, many aged 50 and older, according to the CDC.Johnson & Johnson said on Monday it has been in discussions with the FDA and other regulators about rare cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome.The chance of having this occur is very low, and the rate of reported cases exceeds the background rate by a small degree, the company said in a statement. --IANSksk/