Gluten is a family of proteins mainly found in wheat, barley, rye and triticale (a cross between wheat and rye). It contains gliadin and glutenin. The elasticity of dough is because of its gluten content. Gluten gives a chewy texture and desired shape to the product. In some people, gluten causes inflammatory and autoimmune reactions, where it mainly destroys the tissue of the small intestine and gut lining. In human body absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine, so in such cases, it is very important to follow a gluten-free diet for good gut health and nutritional status. Now let's know about the two grains which are naturally gluten-free and have many health benefits too:
Millet is one such ancient superfood that gives many health benefits due to its nutritional content. It helps to strengthen the immune system, promote good bone health and aids in weight loss. It contains all potential antioxidants which prevent ageing and metabolic disorders like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia etc. We know that many diseases occur due to our body's acidic pH. Where a diet rich in alkaline foods are required. So this grain is alkaline in nature, preventing acidity and heartburn issues.
Health Benefits of Millet:
It's a good source of B vitamins like niacin, folate and pantothenic acid. These nutrients help to perform many enzymatic reactions in our body and are also necessary for the normal functioning of the organs.
Millet contains an insoluble fibre known as prebiotics. It supports good bacteria in the gut. Insoluble fibre helps to relieve symptoms like constipation, bloating, gas and cramps etc.
It can be a healthier grain to include in your diet if you want to protect your heart. It contains a good amount of magnesium which helps to control blood pressure. Millets are rich in dietary fibre too (both soluble and insoluble fibre) which makes it a good choice for people who are suffering from high cholesterol levels.
It's low in simple carbs and high in complex carbs (a low GI food) and hence its consumption is good to control sugar levels and aids in weight loss.
Millets are rich in antioxidants and phenols especially ferulic acid and catechins. Antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress in the body and boost immune functioning. The darker millets contain more antioxidants compared to the lighter ones.
It is one of the nutrient-rich grains for pregnant women as it is rich in iron, protein, antioxidants, dietary fibre, calcium, magnesium, potassium and folate. All those nutrients are required more during pregnancy. Its high iron content improves haemoglobin levels. Dietary fibre prevents constipation and helps to lower blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes. Calcium and folate help in fetus development. Magnesium and potassium manage blood pressure.
And other information for those who are trying to conceive, that this grain can help you. The science behind that is, grains that are high in complex carbs and low in refined carbs prevent a surge in insulin resistance and preserve ovulation. Also, women suffering from PCOD should add this grain to their daily diet. As it helps to cut down the visceral fat, thus regulates the menstrual cycle.
Buckwheat is not a type of wheat, it's a gluten-free grain that comes under the group of cereals commonly called pseudocereals. As it doesn't grow in grass, it's a plant just like quinoa and amaranth. Basically, it is a seed that needs grinding to make its flour. We all include this grain in our diet during fasting days. But do we know its amazing health benefits?
Health Benefits of Buckwheat:
It is more satiating than any other grain due to its power loaded nutrient and complex carbohydrate content. And this helps to reduce weight as it keeps you full for a longer time and prevent you from binge eating.
Iron is very important for our body's normal functioning. Deficiency of this mineral leads to anaemia, weakness and fatigue. Buckwheat is a good source of iron. So make this grain a part of your diet on non-fasting days too.
It is rich in magnesium and calcium, minerals that are required for healthy and stronger bones and teeth, promotes growth and development.
Among the other pseudocereals, buckwheat is a rich source of rutin antioxidants. It contains other antioxidants too like quercetin. Rutin has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antioxidant properties. Antioxidants help to remove potentially harmful substances called "free radicals" from our bodies. And thus it boosts immunity.
It's a rich source of plant-based protein, especially contains a good amount of aspartic acid, arginine and lysine amino acids. These amino acids help in the regularization of hormones in the body. Studies show that intake of lysine may reduce anxiety also improves calcium absorption.
Because of its miraculous nutritional content, it can be a superfood for pregnant women. And it's totally safe to have during pregnancy as it has a good amount of folate, iron, magnesium, calcium, dietary fibre and essential amino acids. Folate supplementation is needed during pregnancy or before conception. A diet rich in folate helps to prevent neural birth defects. Also, it contains a higher amount of dietary fibre, including all three fibre soluble, insoluble or resistant starch.
The role of fibre in our body is to delays the metabolism of sugar and to keep the digestive system healthy. So consumption of this seed will keep you at bay from general problems that occur during pregnancy such as constipation, gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. Research says that intake of lysine with iron and vitamin supplements helps to improve hemoglobin levels in pregnant women.
It will be a great choice for women who are planning to conceive, as buckwheat is a good source of folic acid which helps in releasing eggs during ovulation. Also, it contains a rutin antioxidant that promotes the circulatory system in women. Its high fibre content will help to lose weight in PCOD. It has been found in studies that it lower the testosterone levels by which regulates the ovulation process.
Here is one nutritious recipe you can make by using these two grains:
Millet and buckwheat bhel with the goodness of iron and calcium:
Whole millet grain (boiled): ½ bowl
Buckwheat seed (boiled): ½ bowl
Steamed moong, Kala chana sprouts: ½ bowl
Tossed mushroom: ½ bowl
Green apple: ½ bowl chopped
Lemon: as per taste
Salt and pepper: as per taste
Take a pan and boil whole millet grain and buckwheat seed in water on slow flame till it gets transparent. Drain the extra water and take out the boiled seeds in a bowl. Now add steamed moong and Kala chana sprouts. Meanwhile, toss the mushroom in a pan for few minutes. Add chopped green apple and tossed mushroom in a mixture and flavour it with salt, pepper and lemon.
You can enjoy this bhel as a mid between snack or in dinner.
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Falling sick is not a risk you want to take, especially not now, and it is always better to be safe than regretful. However, it should also be noted that our bodies do not build up immunity overnight; one needs to balance their food habits and eat healthy, home-cooked meals over a period of time. But you can also incorporate some immunity-boosting drinks to your diet. Alphinah Ashinai, Food and Beverage Manager at Vana Dehradun, India, shares healthy immunity boost drinks:
Recipe Type: Decoction
Preparation Time: 6 minutes
Serving Time: 7 minutes
250 ml water
Black pepper 6-8 nos
Clove 5 - 6
Cinnamon bark 1 mm
Ginger chopped 1 tsp
Fresh Tulsi leave 6 - 8 nos
Put all the ingredients together except honey and give one boil and in gentle simmer it for another 5-6 minutes and serve.
Mint, Lemongrass And White Tea Concoction
Recipe Type: Concoction
Preparation Time: 5 minutes
Infusion Time: 4 minutes
1tsp white tea
1tsp chop lemongrass
A sprig of fresh mint leaves
250 ml water
Take 250ml of water boil it in a pan.
Add white tea and lemongrass in it and steep it for 4 minutes or add all the ingredients and boil it for2-3 minutes.
Strain it and serve warm.
Alleviates fatigue and improves immunity
Orange, Papaya Agua Fresca
Recipe Type: Mixology
Preparation Time: 4 minutes
4 cups peeled, deseeded ripe papaya
1½ cups freshly squeezed orange juice
½ cup freshly squeezed lime juice
1½ cups water
2 tablespoons honey (optional)
Put papaya, orange juice and lime juice in a blender, blend it until smooth.
Strain mixture through a fine-mesh sieve into a pitcher or large glass jar.
Discard solid parts, add water and stir it, add honey (optional).
Pour into a glass and serve, garnish with orange.
Cleanse the digestive system and improves immunity
Read More► Can Lack of Nutrients Cause Behavioural Changes?
Have you ever seen someone who worries too much about the future constantly and has this constant fear of uncertainty? Like they will think every negative prospect of a situation. Why do they have this fear? Is it normal to feel this way? How can we get rid of these feelings? You will find all these answers in this article.
Table of contents
• What is anxiety?
• Symptoms of anxiety
• Causes and risk factor
• When you need to see your doctor
• General tips for anxiety
• What to eat and avoid?
• Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Also, Read► Combating Stress And Anxiety With Natural Herbs
What is Anxiety?
In Ayurveda, there are three qualities of mind(mano guna) primarily i.e. sattva, raja, and tama.
Sattva guna is associated with positivity, consciousness, spirituality, and lightness. It represents knowledge and intellect and brings calmness to life.
Raja guna is the most active quality among the three. It is associated with excessive movement and stimulation. It is more focused on achievement and passion.
Tama guna is related to heaviness and inertia. It brings a negative attitude on the front leading to letharginess, excessive sleep, etc.
In Ayurveda, Anxiety is correlated with chittoudvega. Chittoudvega can be defined as chitta(mind) + udvega(anxiety) = chittoudvega (anxious state of mind). Chittoudvega is a psychiatric disorder due to vitiation in raja and tama doshas along with vata and pitta. People having alpa sattva is more prone to anxiety.
Anxiety mainly comprises of two factors:
Fear: unpleasurable feeling in response to danger and threat.
Worry: thinking about unpleasant things that makes you feel unhappy and upsets you.
So chittaudvega or anxiety disorder is characterized by uncontrollable, irrational, and excessive worrying about everyday things that are not even going to happen.
Symptoms of Anxiety
As symptoms of anxiety may differ from person to person but some symptoms are common in all of them like persistent unrealistic worry often associated with muscle tension, insomnia, impaired concentration, feeling ‘on edge’, or restlessness. Other symptoms of anxiety are:
7. Anidra( Insomnia)
8.Nidra nash(Disturbed sleep)
9.Shirash shoonyata(Numbness of mind)
10.Unmattachitattavam(Lack of concentration)
Also, Read► Low fitness may increase depression and anxiety: Study
Causes And Risk Factor of Anxiety
In ayurvedic literature, it is believed that weak sattva leads to anxiety. Vitiation in raja and tama along with vata and pitta is responsible for this psychiatric disorder. Factors that cause anxiety are:
1. Genetic Factor: In some families, it runs from one generation to the next.
2. Traumatic Events: stressful events in life like workplace tension, Financial stress, death of a loved one can lead to anxiety.
3. Excessive Use of Alcohol: Alcoholic tendencies leads to vitiation of raja and tama doshas.
4. Health Issues: Some diseases like heart diseases, thyroid disorders can lead the person to depression. Slowly with time, it results in anxiety.
When You Need To See Your Doctor
It is very normal that you feel anxious before taking an exam or a job interview. But when a person starts having problems in making daily life decisions and worries too much that he/she can't concentrate then they need to consult a doctor. Generally, a diagnosis of anxiety is made when a person continuously feels anxious about everyday problems for more than 6 months.
General Tips For Anxiety
In today's world lifestyle is changing so fast and everybody is trying to fulfill all the physical desires. Everybody seems like he is carrying a weight across their shoulder. So psychiatric disorders like anxiety are quite often seen even in the younger generation. But some of the following tips may help you in relaxation and relieve that mental burden:
1. In Ayurveda weak sattva is considered responsible for mano roga(mental disorder). So sattvavajaya chikitsa(bringing the mind under control) is recommended for peace of mind. For this we should follow these tips:
A. Following ritucharya(seasonal regimen) and dinacharya(daily regimen):
* We should include certain things in our daily lifestyle(dinacharya) like praying, having gratitude towards what we have, cleanliness and vyayam(exercise), etc. This will have a positive impact on our life.
* In certain seasons people feel more anxious like in summers. So we should follow a particular regimen to avoid seasonal anxiety.
B. Sattva guna can be improved by following sadvritta(code of virtues). This includes:
• Moral and ethical conduct
• Truth, non-violence
• Personal hygiene etc.
The practice of sadvritta(behavioral approaches mainly) will reduce stress and anxiety.
C. Annapanavidhi(dietary rules):
Here are few tips:
• Avoiding rajasic and tamasic foods like chili and caffeine.
• Eating meals at the same time.
• Including foods like kshira(milk), ghrita(ghee), draksha(grapes) in the diet to balance vata and pitta dosha.
2. Abhyanga(Body massage): Body massage is a great way to relieve tension and anxiety. One can simply have a tila taila(sesame oil) or sarshap taila(mustard oil) massage.
3. Shirodhara(Streaming of medicated oil, milk, decoction on the forehead): Pouring medicated oils like chandanadi taila or even simple oils like sesame oil over the forehead can calm down those stressed nerves.
4. Pranayam(Breathing exercises): Pranayam have some really good effect on anxiety. One should focus on inhalations and exhalations, and try to lengthen them with some pause. Pranayam like Anulom-vilom(alternate nostril breathing), kapalbhati, bhastrika, and bhramari can soothe your nerves.
5. Yoga and meditation: Some asanas in yoga can help to relieve symptoms of anxiety when practiced regularly like dhanurasan(bow pose), setu bandhasana(bridge pose), marjariasana(cat stretch), shirshaasan(headstand), etc.
Also, Read► Ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety
What To Eat And Avoid?
In ayurvedic literature, dietary habits held great importance in determining a person’s health. As in anxiety, we see symptoms like anannaabhilasha(anorexia) and avipaka(indigestion) related to the gastro intestinal system, it seems more important to focus on the diet of the person. So one should follow these rules:
• One should have regular meals at the same time.
• Eat warm food that is cooked in little oil or ghrita(ghee) to balance vata dosha.
• Include more sattvic foods in the diet like seasonal fruits and homemade simple meals.
• Drink milk mixed with kesar(saffron) before bedtime as it will help in sleep.
• Avoid processed foods like bakery items, frozen food and deep-fried food.
• Avoid rajasic and tamasic foods like chili, caffeine, and processed meats.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q1. What is anxiety?
Ans. Anxiety or as we call it chittoudvega in Ayurveda is characterized by constantly worrying or feeling anxious all the time that a person might feel difficulty in his everyday life. One can also develop physical symptoms gradually like angamarda(body aches), anannaabhilasha(anorexia), anidra(insomnia), etc.
Q2. How can we avoid it?
Ans. As Ayurveda believes in nidana parivarjan(removal of the cause) as its first line of treatment, adopting a yogic lifestyle may help in preventing anxiety. The yamas and niyamas(principles) of yoga can help you achieve that sattvic lifestyle. For instance, the shaucha principle is all about the cleanliness of the mind and body. The Santosh principle talks about contentment with whatever you have in your life. Also, the aparigraha principle can help in controlling our desires to possess more.
One should also eat nutritious food and lead a healthy lifestyle with the help of yoga, pranayama, and dhyana(meditation).
Q3. How can I relieve stress and anxiety naturally?
Ans. Most natural ways to combat anxiety are getting good sleep, exercising, reducing caffeine intake, laughter therapy, practicing breathing exercises, and reducing the causes of stress in your life. Mindfulness, physical connection with your partner, and spending time with your family and friends can also do wonders in this scenario. Just take things slowly and follow one day at a time rule.
Ayurvedic Treatment For Stress And Anxiety
Ayurveda not only talks about physical health but also the mental health of a person is equally important which makes it a complete science for a living. For anxiety also, Ayurveda focuses on both prospects.
Acharya Charak has recommended 3 methods of treatment:
• Daivavyapashraya chikitsa (Spiritual or divine treatment)
• Yukti vyapashraya chikitsa (Logical therapy)
• Satwavajaya chikitsa (Psychotherapy)
1. For daivavyapasraya chikitsa, one should pray to god, give charity, chant different mantras, etc. These practices will lift the spirits of the patient and they can feel more contented in themselves.
2. Yukti vyapashraya or as we may call it drug therapy, targets proper diet, medication, and rasayanas also.
Shodhan therapy (Body detoxification) like nasya(nasal instillation), Abhyanga(body massage), virechana(purgation), basti(enema), shirolepa, taildhara can be helpful in effectively treating this condition.
3. Satwavajaya chikitsa also plays an important role in this. In this, we provide counseling for managing different issues, replace negative thoughts, and restrain the mind from unnecessary thinking by analytical thinking, courage, and knowledge. Different mental disorders which can induce anxiety-like anger issues, PTSD and different type of phobias can also be treated under this.
Ayurvedic Medicine For Stress And Anxiety
There are several medicines in Ayurveda to treat anxiety that have shown amazing results. Medicines like Brahmi ghrita, ashwagandha churna, kalyanak ghrita, panchagavya ghrit, saraswatarishta, sarpagandha, jatamansi, etc are being used by ayurvedic practitioners to tackle this situation.
Q4. What herbs are good for stress and anxiety?
Ans. Herbs like Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis), ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), and bhringraj (Eclipta alba) are well-known herbs for anxiety disorder. They help in reducing stress levels, detoxifying the body, and calm your mind. You can simply incorporate them into your lifestyle as tea, oils, or powdered form and get various benefits. Even external application is beneficial in some cases.
Q5. Can anxiety go away naturally?
Ans. Mild cases of anxiety can go away after the issue causing it is resolved. But if you have an anxiety disorder or repetitive attacks, then you might need to see your doctor.
Q6. What is the 333 rule for anxiety?
Ans. As anxiety can flare up at any time of your day, it's really important to take care of your mental health as you do for your body. 333 rule can be really helpful to manage your anxiety attacks. For this, look around you and name 3 things you see. Then focus on your hearing and name 3 sounds that you hear. At last move 3 of your body parts like your fingers, legs, or arms. During this whole process remember to take slow and deep breaths. This is a proven effective method to stop your mind to overthink and calm down your mind.
Q7. What foods to avoid if you have anxiety?
Ans. Different processed foods like bakery goods, frozen food, refined cereals, candy, and fried food are not good for you if you are dealing with anxiety. Also, caffeine, chili, and processed meat should be avoided.
• Agnivesh, “Charak Samhita” revised by Charaka & Dridhbala with “Ayurved Deepika commentary”, by Chkarapanidatta, edited by Vd. Jadavaji Trikamji Acharya, published by Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint-2008, Ch.Vi 6/5 pp.254.
• Acharya YT. Charaka: Charaka Samhita with Āyurveda Deepika Commentary of Chakrapani: Chaukhambha Orientalia; Varanasi 2002, 383,384
• Acharya Jadavaji Trikamji, editor. Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, Sutra Sthana, Ch. 1/Ver. 54; 5th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sanst han; 2001.
Read More► Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms And Ayurvedic Treatment
At the personal level, the fight against the Covid-19 virus begins with strong immunity. As the second wave turns out to be more alarming and devastating than the previous one, many are turning to strengthening their immune system using homegrown plants, 'kadhas', and a nutrient-rich and diverse diet.
The world is waking up again to the importance of a balanced diet, and according to Aseem Sood, Managing Director, Proveda India, it is necessary to follow a diet that includes foods rich in iron, protein and vitamins C, B12 and A.
While patients must strictly follow their doctor's advice, Sood believes that, "to combat this deadly disease is also to opt for the age-old ayurvedic immunity drinks and kitchen ingredients in Indian households that have the necessary nutrients to cure a lot of ailments like cold, flu and fever. Make sure that your immunity is in its prime and working at its full capacity to fight against allergens and pathogens attacking your body."
Here's what he suggests to help you boost your immunity and complete your diet, so your body builds up the strength to put up a fight against foreign pathogens.
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Giloy and tulsi: Studies have proved that Giloy possesses immune-o-simulator properties. It helps to flush out the toxins from the body. Giloy also contains Antipyretic (fever controlling) properties. Tulsi is known as the ''the queen of herbs''. Tulsi is said to prevent disease, promote general health, well-being and longevity and assist in dealing with the stresses of daily life. Combination of these two superb herbs gives you a healthy and long life. Giloy Tulsi Plus is a traditionally-known herb that boosts immunity level and balances all three 'doshas'.
Panch tulsi with ginger drops: It is one of the best examples of ayurveda's holistic lifestyle approach to health. Considered as a potent adaptogen, Panch tulsi and ginger have a unique combination of pharmacological actions that promote well-being and resilience. This combination increases anti-oxidant molecules such as glutathione and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, which protect cellular organelles and membranes by mopping up damaging free radicals in the body.
Immune drops: Immune drops is a mixture of rama tulsi, kala tulsi, vishnu priya tulsi, sweet lemon tulsi, bisva tulsi, curcumin. It is an instant immunity booster, gives you good health, protects you from diseases and helps you to live a good healthy life.
Sood also suggests taking in dissolvable Vitamin C tablets in water as it is an antioxidant which strengthens body's immune response.
Finally, if one is advised, they can also take in multivitamin capsules. "Modern day food habits don't provide proper nutrition and that's why we need multivitamin supplements to re-vitalize the body and to keep you protected from the damage caused by harmful free radicals.''
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Amaravati, May 26 (IANS) The first phase of studies into the Covid cure devised by a Krishnapatnam-based herbal medicine practitioner was completed on Wednesday.The studies were organised under the directions of the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS). They were jointly conducted by the Regional Ayurvedic Research Centre in Vijaywada, and the SV Ayurveda College in Tirumala.Officials said that the researchers from the two institutions have completed their retrospective studies. The researchers spoke to 570 persons who had taken the Covid medicine prepared by Anandaiah, a herbal medicine practitioner belonging to Krishnapatnam in Nellore district.According to official sources, the feedback from these people has been transmitted online to the CCRAS.The next phase of research will include toxicity tests, and studies on animals.The Andhra Pradesh government had decided to rope in Central agencies to evaluate the ayurvedic remedy for Covid that a local practitioner claimed to have developed.The medication prepared by Anandiah has been attracting people from the surrounding areas over the last few days. However, distribution of medicine was halted after the Lok Ayukta stepped in following reports that Covid norms were being violated.Anandiah had become a local sensation after people in search of a cure for Covid began landing in droves at his doorsteps, after visuals of his treatment went viral on social media platforms.--IANSpvn/arm
Washington, May 24 (IANS) US' top infectious disease expert Anthony Fauci has said he is "not convinced" Covid-19 developed naturally, and has called for an open investigation into China to unravel the virus' origins, the media reported.Fauci was asked during a Poynter event, "United Facts of America: A Festival of Fact-Checking", earlier this month, about whether he was confident that Covid developed naturally."No actually. I am not convinced about that, I think we should continue to investigate what went on in China until we continue to find out to the best of our ability what happened," Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) was quoted as saying, Fox News reported on Sunday."Certainly, the people who investigated it say it likely was the emergence from an animal reservoir that then infected individuals, but it could have been something else, and we need to find that out. So, you know, that's the reason why I said I'm perfectly in favor of any investigation that looks into the origin of the virus," Fauci added.The Coronavirus was first reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019. Reports have claimed of the virus' origin from a lab there.Further, Fauci called for an investigation into China during a Senate hearing last week, the New York Post reported.aceDo you think it's possible that Covid-19 arose from a lab accident a in Wuhan, and should it be fully investigated?" Senator Roger Marshall (R-Kansas), a doctor, asked Fauci during a Senate hearing on May 11."That possibility certainly exists, and I am totally in favour of a full investigation of whether that could have happened," Fauci replied.Another Senator had claimed that funding through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) had been funneled to the controversial Wuhan Institute of Virology -- the Chinese lab that is believed to have played a role in the initial outbreak of Covid-19, the Fox News reported.Rand Paul specifically zeroed in on gain of function research -- which works on making pathogens deadlier or more easily transmissible. He alleged that a US virologist had been working with the Chinese institute on such research and said it was funded by the NIH."I do not have any accounting of what the Chinese may have done, and I'm fully in favour of any further investigation of what went on in China," Fauci said."However, I will repeat again, the NIH and NIAID categorically have not funded the gain of function research to be conducted in the Wuhan Institute of Virology," he addedFauci, who is also a top adviser to President Biden on the coronavirus pandemic, had in the initial months of the pandemic last year dismissed the theory that Covid originated from China. He stated that the virus most likely "evolved in nature and then jumped species", as opposed to being "artificially or deliberately manipulated".While the Trump administration officials have long argued there is a high chance Covid-19 was the result of a lab leak, the World Health Organization declared, last week, that the lab leak theory "extremely unlikely". However, WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said the research team's assessment on whether the virus entered the human population following a laboratory incident was not "extensive enough" and requires further investigation.White House press secretary Jen Psaki said, this week, the Biden administration has conveyed both publicly and privately that the Chinese government was "not transparent from the beginning", the report said.--IANSrvt/in