The rise in air pollution, coupled with lousy lifestyle habits, is causing a spike in respiratory diseases. According to a Lancet report, the contribution of chronic respiratory diseases in India increased from 4.5 per cent in 1990 to 6.4 per cent in 2016. With respiratory issues on the rise, there is an increased demand for natural solutions to treat such issues. Instead of conventional medicine, people are turning to alternative medical therapies to find cures for ailments.
Common Lung Disorders
Bronchitis is a health condition that causes inflammation in the airways of the lungs. This leads to narrowing of the air pathways and excess mucus causes wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing. It is a chronic condition that interferes seriously with daily life.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
It is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that obstructs the airflow to the lungs. Symptoms of COPD include breathing difficulty, mucus (sputum) production, coughing, and wheezing. It can result from long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. Those affected by COPD are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer, heart disease, and a variety of other conditions.
This is another variation of COPD. Bronchitis causes a similar build-up of mucus that can cause inflammation and coughing. The lungs' airways are constantly inflamed as chronic bronchitis often lasts for months on end. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include incessant coughing, whistling sounds while breathing, wheezing and a tightening of the chest.
It is said that the cure for all ailments is available the natural way. Here are some of the alternative medicine approaches to treat respiratory disorders.
Alternative Medicinal Approaches to Treat Respiratory Disorders
Asthma is one of the most common lung diseases. One of the primary causes of asthma is allergies, which often result from the food consumed. It is crucial, therefore, to first prepare a diet that is suitable for an individual. Often, dairy products, meats, and certain nuts can increase the production of mucus.
Foods like these must be avoided. Also, antioxidants can prevent damage resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Diet is important in this regard, as fruits and vegetables high in Vitamins A, C, and E can improve the condition of COPD patients.
Yoga and Exercise
Treatment of lung disorders often involves the use of the lungs to promote healthy breathing habits. Exercises like cycling, swimming, yoga etc. that create a need for full capacity breathing are of great importance. Exercising the diaphragm is important and simple activities can go a long way in the treatment of the same.
Pranayama, the practise of controlled breathing, is an integral part of alternative treatment for people suffering from respiratory issues. This extensive breathing practice helps to expand the lungs and improve the capacity of the lungs, which helps an individual breathe more freely.
Nasal irrigation systems like JalNeti using a Neti pot can help to rinse the sinuses, which may provide some relief from symptoms of respiratory allergies.
The traditional Chinese practice of acupuncture involves inserting thin needles into the skin to stimulate certain parts of the body. According to a study published in the journal Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, people with allergic rhinitis who were given acupuncture treatments twice a week for eight weeks had fewer symptoms than those administered placebo.
It is important to remember that no one complementary or alternative therapy works well for everyone with respiratory issues. Therefore, a proper assessment is done before deciding on the approach to the treatment plan. For those considering alternative medicine for their respiratory problems, it is recommended to speak to an expert first and discuss the approach that may work best. (Vinoda Kumary, Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Jindal Naturecure Institute)
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With a whopping 77 million people in India living with diabetes, a simultaneous and sharp rise has been observed in the prevalence of diabetes-related preventable vision loss, particularly among the young people, say experts.
Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic, progressive retinal disease that is a leading cause of vision impairment in today's young adults, working population. It's of major concern among children suffering from juvenile diabetes (Type-1 diabetes) and especially if they have had diabetes for over 10 years.
It is estimated that approximately 1.1-crore people are suffering from retinal disorders in India and more alarmingly, about one in every three people living with diabetes have some degree of diabetic retinopathy, a diabetes complication that affects eyes.
"With the growing incidence of diabetes, it has been estimated that diabetic retinopathy affects one in three people with diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in young working-aged adults," Dr Mahipal Sachdev, Medical Director and Chairman, Centre for Sight Group of Eye Hospital, told IANS.
"Approximately 7-10 per cent of young diabetics will go on to develop diabetic retinopathy, of which 2-4 per cent will have vision threatening sequelae if not taken proper treatment." added Dr. Aditya Sudhalkar, M.S. Ophthalmology, Consultant Vitreoretinal Surgeon.
The most common form of diabetic retinopathy is Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) which arises when the damaged blood vessels swell and flow into the macula of the retina causing visibility issues in the normal vision.
According to Dr. Chaitra Jayadev, senior vitreo-retinal consultant, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Institute Karnataka, studies have shown that the prevalence of DME and diabetic retinopathy is higher and more severe in young diabetics with a longer duration of diabetes.
"Diabetes in the younger is a distinct pathological entity characterised by a more aggressive presentation and manifestation. An earlier onset of diabetes leads to a longer exposure to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. This gives rise to a greater propensity for developing long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications," Dr. Jayadev said.
Thus, screening for diabetes is of utmost importance, even if one is "young" and has no symptoms. It becomes more crucial if one has risk factors such as family history, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, or on long term steroid medications.
Dr. Sudhalkar said that in India, there is a general reluctance towards attending clinics and nearly 25 per cent of young patients with DME come late for diagnosis.
"It's important to know, only 11 per cent of diabetic retinopathy patients can actually reverse vision threatening sequelae once they set in. The rest continue to progress even with strict glycemic control," he noted.
"Retinopathy, unfortunately, is the most neglected complication of diabetes. We see so many patients come to OPD where eyes have not been checked for. So the screening, also known as Funduscopy, should be done at the time of diagnosis of Type-2 diabetes, in adults, and in children, five years after the onset of diabetes, and thereafter annually," Dr Dheeraj Kapoor, HOD, Endocrinology at Artemis, Gurugram, told IANS.
If diabetes occurs near puberty, then funduscopy should be checked for potential retinopathy.
"It is important because the condition poses no symptoms in the initial days. And once symptoms set in, such as bleeding in the eye, red vision, sudden loss of vision, it's too late," Kapoor said.
The doctors advised to adhere to the treatment and maintain a healthy lifestyle to effectively manage diabetes and to prevent the onset or progression of eye diseases.
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Recent medical advances have made breast cancer a highly manageable disease, especially when detected early, as in the case of stages 0-to-II cancers.
Timely treatment also minimises disruptions to the patient's daily routine and quality of life. Advancements in digitalisation have also greatly benefited women, as they can easily access information through YouTube on how to self-examine themselves and learn about breast anatomy or changes in breast structure that should be brought to the notice of specialists immediately.
Women above the age group of 20 -25 years should examine themselves monthly, and those above 40 years of age should go for mammography at regular intervals. With earlier breast cancer detection, the survival rate increases to 80 per cent (Stage 1 and stage 2), as compared to 56 per cent in Stage 3 and stage 4.
In India, however, early treatment is the exception rather than the norm. By the time most patients are diagnosed, they are already in stage III or IV of the disease, where treatment modalities are more complex. Additionally, the stigma of living with breast cancer can hamper the patients' quality of life in physical, psychological, and social terms.
Mental health counselling, family and institutional support, and new drugs and modalities can help women at all stages of breast cancer to improve life expectancy, health, and overall happiness, thus ticking all the boxes for improved life quality.
Stigma And Suffering
One in 28 Indian women is at risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. As per a CII report, the median age for diagnosis is 46 years, and nearly half of all diagnosed women are premenopausal, i.e., relatively young compared to breast cancer patients in Western nations.
The concern, though, is that at the time of diagnosis, around 70 per cent of Indian women are already in stage III or stage IV (known as metastatic breast cancer, or cancer that has spread to other parts of the body). While getting screened early may seem like an evident solution, however, low awareness and culturally ingrained stigmas still prevent many women from getting the timely help they need.
Due to cultural factors and social taboos, women do not get checked for breast cancer or share their symptoms with others, thereby leading to delayed diagnosis. Unfortunately, the pandemic has only amplified the burden of our healthcare system, magnifying these delays.
A QOL-Itative Approach
Focusing on patients' QOL means helping them thrive on the physical, emotional and social parameters by improving their all-around experience of the disease. New hope has also come in the form of targeted therapies that shrink or remove tumours by disabling specific proteins on cancerous cells to block their growth.
These therapies, which can often be taken orally, allow patients to bypass chemotherapy and related harsh side effects. Targeted therapies are proving more effective than chemotherapy in extending the survival rates of patients with stage III or IV cancers up to 5-8 years even if a patient is diagnosed at a metastatic stage.
The rise of non-invasive, chemo-free targeted therapies is opening a new front in the battle against advanced and metastatic breast cancer. By reducing or eliminating frequent hospital visits and the side-effects they earlier took for granted, it is possible to enhance patients' physical and psychological well-being and to help them live longer with dignity and independence.
Breast cancer doesn't mean the end of life. Today, treatment options for breast cancer have advanced, giving hope to patients even in advanced stages. Nowadays, due to government policies (Ayushman Bharat), every woman, regardless of her social strata, can avail of world-class cancer treatment in medical facilities across the country.
Even in advanced stages, families should not lose hope, as newer drugs such as molecular therapy treatment have proven effective for patients suffering from hormone-positive breast cancer, which is the most common form of cancer among Indian women. As many as 60 to 90 per cent of patients respond to these advanced treatments positively, enabling them to lead an enhanced quality of life. With such innovations, cancer can be viewed as a chronic disease that needs management.
Awareness-building and sensitisation are key. Educating women and girls in urban and rural contexts about breast cancer, the importance of regular self-monitoring, and de-stigmatising medical examinations and advanced treatment options, so that they can maximise their chances of identifying and beating the disease.
It would also help address psychosocial impacts like anxiety, depression, or fear by making therapy or psychiatry facilities accessible, affordable, and un-stigmatised for patients. This would also include teaching families and communities to support patients by accompanying them for treatments, helping with chores, spending time with them, and not letting them feel like a "burden".
The late American writer John Diamond said that cancer is "a word and not a sentence". However, for lakhs of women, breast cancer is a life-changing reality. While conventional treatments for breast cancer are constantly evolving and their efficacy is undeniable, life after a breast cancer diagnosis is about more than survival (extending the patient's life) or pain management (alleviating physical discomfort). What's required is a holistic approach towards improving the quality of the patient's life and this is being understood today. (Padma Shri Pankaj Shah, Medical Oncology Haematology, Zydus Hospital, Ahmedabad)
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Although India has, for a long time, battled the incidence of cancer, latest estimates pegs them to be rising at significantly higher rate. Once thought of as an old age disease, cancer is now a cause of concern also among the youth and children.
National Cancer Awareness Day is observed every year on November 7 in India, to increase awareness about cancer prevention and the need for its early detection.
According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), there will be an estimated 12 per cent rise in cancer cases in India in the next five years.
Longer life expectancy is a major contributor to the overall cancer incidence. As people grow old, their bodies have longer time to allow faults to build up and the body accumulates more of these faults in the genes, considerably increasing the risk of cancer.
"Larger proportion of older individuals is the first cause of increased cancer numbers. The higher the proportion of older age in the population, the higher is the chance of cancer," Wesley M Jose, Clinical Associate Professor, Medical Oncology, Amrita Hospital, Kochi, told IANS.
Further, males (52.4 per cent) are more prone to the risk of all cancer cases compared to females (47.4 per cent). Tobacco use is the major reason comprising 48.7 per cent of cancers among males and 16.5 per cent among females.
A recent report states that the number of cancers associated with tobacco use in 2025 would be 4,27,273 contributing to 27.2 per cent of India's total projected cancer cases. Initiation of tobacco, known to contain at least 69 cancer-causing agents, in the youth is a contributory factor to the increased burden of cancers associated with tobacco use in India.
"Tobacco cessation will reduce the cancer burden by about 25 per cent. The major contributing factor being tobacco and ghutka consumption that directly accounts for 27 per cent of cancers in India," Murad E. Lala, Oncologist at P.D. Hinduja Hospital & MRC, Mahim, Mumbai, told IANS.
"We all know that oral and lung cancer that affects our male population to the maximum can be prevented by curbing smoking and tobacco consumption. We need to start thinking of some unhealthy foods similar to what we think about tobacco unnecessary, addictive, and harmful," said Anil Heroor, Director-Advanced OncoSurgery Unit, Fortis Hospitals Mumbai.
Apart from tobacco, alcohol, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and environmental factors also contribute to the increase in cancers.
"The overall living circumstances of the Indian population have improved and that have also led to a larger sedentary workforce, which has access to a high-calorie diet. These factors indirectly have affected the rise in numbers," Jose said.
"Nearly six types of cancers are linked to obesity and are slowly on the rise among people under 50. These are cancers of the colon or rectal, pancreas, kidney, gallbladder, uterine (also called endometrial cancer), and multiple myeloma. These Cancers are often not discovered in younger people until the disease is advanced and harder to treat," Heroor said.
Childhood cancer is also seeing an increasing trend, mainly of leukemia and lymphomas. Childhood (0-14 years) cancers constitute 7.9 per cent of all cancers, according to ICMR.
"The common types of cancers in children are leukemias, lymphomas, CNS tumours, retinoblastomas and Wilm's tumours. While most of the childhood cancers are curable if detected early and treated appropriately, children in India have limited access to tertiary centres that treat childhood cancers. This delay in treatment causes the survival rate to drop," Jose said.
The cancer burden in the country can be reduced by strengthening the government health systems, making universal health coverage, health education, treatment compliance, and early detection centres at the community level.
Besides, vaccination for virus-related cancer like liver and cervix, and improved physical activity, stricter tobacco and alcohol laws can also help, the experts suggested. (IANS)
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Until a few years ago heart diseases were common among older people in India. However, in recent years, heart ailments have become more common among the younger population in India. Heart diseases are killing approximately 17 million people in the world, and in India, there million people die each year due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which include heart attack and stroke.
Therefore, it is important to understand what causes heart attacks in younger Indians. Following are a few reasons that cause a heart attack in Indians:
Over Exercising: A recent study that too much exercise may be bad for the heart. While inactivity is also linked to increase in heart diseases by giving rise to obesity and other chronic diseases, the study that was conducted displayed that the people who engage in physical activity that exceeds a recommended amount for them are more at risk of having a heart attack.
Dietary Supplements: There has been no research that shows a clear benefit of supplements. However, it has been said that consuming too many supplements can be harmful. Excessive amounts of calcium and vitamin D are said to be linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although there are studies that are ongoing around this, there has been little evidence that any amount of vitamin D supplement will protect the heart.
Stress and Heart Attack: In today’s fast-paced lives an individual faces a lot of stress due to their personal and professional relationships. Professionally, a lot of work takes place on a desk and the working hours are long. Therefore, this leads to young professionals having less sleep and high stress, which increases their risk of having heart diseases.
Hypertension: With our current dynamic lifestyles, food habits tend to change leading to increased salt consumption. Furthermore, there is increase in the amount of stress and our lifestyles are sedentary. All the factors together have led to an increase in hypertension among younger people. People with high blood pressure are likely to develop coronary diseases because high BP adds pressure on the artery walls and over time this can destroy the arteries.
Unhealthy Eating Habits: A lot of young professionals and students often go to food joints that serve unhealthy food items such as junk food. These foods have a high amount of cholesterol and trans fat which may lead to heart disease among people
Hence, to reduce the number of individuals with heart attacks, drastic steps need to be taken collectively and as individuals. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to spread awareness around the growing burden of heart attacks among younger Indians and individuals need to adapt to a more holistic and healthy approach to life. Even at the slightest indication of heart disease, one must reach out to their primary care consultant to stay safe and healthy.
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इंडियन काउंसिल ऑफ मेडिकल रिसर्च (आईसीएमआर) द्वारा तैयार की गई एक रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि 2012-19 के बीच कैंसर के कुल मामलों में से 7.9 फीसदी 14 साल से कम उम्र के बच्चों में पाए गए। 'क्लिनिकोपैथोलॉजिकल प्रोफाइल ऑफ कैंसर्स इन इंडिया : ए रिपोर्ट ऑफ हॉस्पिटल-बेस्ड कैंसर रजिस्ट्रीज, 2021', नेशनल कैंसर रजिस्ट्री प्रोग्राम (एनसीआरपी) के तहत 96 अस्पताल-आधारित कैंसर रजिस्ट्रियों की अवधि के दौरान एकत्र किए गए डेटा को समेकित करता है। डेटा देशभर में इन केंद्रों को रिपोर्ट किए गए पुष्टिकृत विकृतियों के सभी निदान और इलाज के मामलों से संबंधित हैं।
देश में 2012-19 के दौरान कैंसर के 13,32,207 मामले दर्ज किए गए। इनमें से 6,10,084 को डेटा की पूर्णता और गुणवत्ता के आधार पर विश्लेषण के लिए शामिल किया गया था।
बचपन के कैंसर वैश्विक स्तर पर बचपन की बीमारियों के प्रमुख कारण के रूप में नौवें स्थान पर हैं, विकलांगता समायोजित जीवन वर्ष (डीएएलवाई) के 11.5 मिलियन के लिए जिम्मेदार है।
भारत में, एनसीआरपी की एक हालिया रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, सभी आयु समूहों में कैंसर के सापेक्ष बचपन के कैंसर (0-19 वर्ष) का अनुपात 1 से 4.9 प्रतिशत के बीच पाया गया।
दिल्ली में लड़कों में 203.1 प्रति मिलियन और लड़कियों में 125.4 प्रति मिलियन की उच्चतम आयु-समायोजित घटना दर (एएआर) दर्ज की। ल्यूकेमिया 0-14 वर्ष आयु वर्ग में दोनों लिंगों में सभी बचपन के कैंसर के लगभग आधे के लिए जिम्मेदार है (लड़कों में 46.4 प्रतिशत और लड़कियों में 44.3 प्रतिशत)। लड़कों में अन्य सामान्य बचपन का कैंसर लिम्फोमा (16.4 प्रतिशत) था, जबकि लड़कियों में यह घातक अस्थि ट्यूमर (8.9 प्रतिशत) था।
बचपन के कैंसर दो आयु समूहों के लिए प्रस्तुत किए जाते हैं : 0-14 वर्ष और 0-19 वर्ष राष्ट्रीय और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय तुलना को सक्षम करने के लिए और बचपन के कैंसर के अंतर्राष्ट्रीय वर्गीकरण के अनुसार वर्गीकृत किया जाता है।
रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि बचपन के कैंसर के अलावा, तंबाकू के उपयोग से जुड़े कैंसर में पुरुषों में 48.7 प्रतिशत और महिलाओं में 16.5 प्रतिशत कैंसर शामिल हैं।
थायरॉइड कैंसर (महिलाओं में 2.5 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 1 प्रतिशत) और पित्ताशय के कैंसर (महिलाओं में 3.7 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 2.2 प्रतिशत) को छोड़कर, साइट-विशिष्ट कैंसर का सापेक्ष अनुपात महिलाओं की तुलना में पुरुषों में अधिक था।
सभी कैंसरों में दूर के मेटास्टेसिस का उच्चतम अनुपात फेफड़ों के कैंसर (49.2 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 55.5 प्रतिशत महिलाओं) के रोगियों में देखा गया, इसके बाद पित्ताशय का कैंसर (40.9 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 45.7 प्रतिशत महिलाएं) और प्रोस्टेट कैंसर (42.9 प्रतिशत) का स्थान है।
रिपोर्ट ने सुझाव दिया कि कई कैंसर के लिए कीमोथेरेपी अभी भी सबसे विशिष्ट उपचार पद्धति थी, भले ही प्रस्तुति में रोग की नैदानिक सीमा कुछ भी हो, जिसमें यकृत, पित्ताशय, पेट, फेफड़े और बचपन के कैंसर शामिल हैं।
यह भी पढ़े► कैंसर और हार्ट अटैक से ज्यादा खतरनाक हो जाएगा सेप्सिस: शोध