Indians eat more fibre-rich plant based diet than people in the Western countries, reducing their risk of gut-related problems such as inflammatory bowel diseases like crohn's disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), colitis, and colon cancer, according to a research on Tuesday.
The international study, including researchers from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER)- Bhopal, sought to understand the relationship between gut bacteria and inflammatory diseases.
"Increased intake of carbohydrate in the form of fibre such as wheat, vegetables, fruits and lentils, mostly found in Indian diet lowers the incidence of IBD, crohn's disease, colitis, colectral cancer, etc., than western diets that are generally meat-based," lead author Dr Vineet K. Sharma, Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, IISER Bhopal, told IANS.
The human gut contains 300-500 types of bacteria that are necessary for our survival. These bacteria help in digestion, protect us from infections and even produce essential vitamins and neurochemicals.
Depending on the kind of bacteria that dominates the gut, human beings are generally classified into three "enterotypes" -- Prevotella, Bacteroides or Ruminococcus.
The study included 586 healthy samples from western and non-western populations including 200 samples from India, and 189 IBS samples from western populations.
The 200 gut samples from India were taken from people from several locations in -- Madhya Pradesh, Delhi-NCR, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, Bihar, and Kerala. It is also the largest gut metagenome study from India, as most such studies are largely based on the Western population.
The findings, published in the Nature's Biofilms and Microbiomes journal, showed that the Indian gut microbiome has the highest abundance of the Prevotella genus of bacteria, in particular, a species called Prevotella copri (P.copri).
This bacterium was also found to dominate the guts of other populations that consume a carbohydrate and fibre-rich diet, such as the Italian, Madagascarian, Peruvian, and Tanzanian. But, the gut microbiomes of people from Western countries like the US are dominated by Bacteroides.
Further, they found that P. copri is significant in the metabolism of complex polysaccharides and dietary fibres in non-western populations.
It is thus logical that this type of bacteria predominates the gut microbiome of the healthy Indian and non-western population that consumes a diet rich in plant-carbohydrates and fibres, Sharma explained.
"The proportion of P.copri in Indians is 30 per cent and can reach upto 60-70 per cent. Of the more than 1200 species of Prevotella, P.copri is the most abundant in Indian human gut," Sharma told IANS.
On the other hand, the guts of Western population were found to have other Prevotella species such as P. intermedia and P. nigrescens. These bacteria are usually found in the mouth, which points to a mouth-gut axis. These bacterial species are inflammatory and have high virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, making the Western population more susceptible to gut inflammatory diseases.
"Our insights would help in the development of new probiotics and prebiotics for different health-related conditions associated with the gut which is much needed for non-western populations," Sharma said.
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लखनऊ | 'डेंटल स्लीप मेडिसिन' पर एक सम्मेलन के अनुसार भारत में करीब 40 लाख लोग, खासकर बुजुर्ग और मोटे लोग ऑब्सट्रक्टिव स्लीप एपनिया (ओएसए) सिंड्रोम से पीड़ित हैं। सोमवार को यहां आयोजित सम्मेलन में विशेषज्ञों ने कहा कि अगर कोई व्यक्ति सांस लेने में तकलीफ के कारण रात में कई बार जागता है और पूरे दिन सिरदर्द और थकान के साथ सुबह शुष्क मुंह का अनुभव करता है, तो यह ओएसए के कारण हो सकता है।
श्वसन चिकित्सा में, ओएसए का आमतौर पर निरंतर पॉजिटिव वायुमार्ग दबाव मशीनों के साथ इलाज किया जाता है, लेकिन दंत चिकित्सा भी आसान प्रबंधन प्रदान करती है।
सरस्वती डेंटल कॉलेज के डीन और सम्मेलन के आयोजक प्रोफेसर अरविंद त्रिपाठी ने कहा, "मोटापा, जीवन शैली का तनाव और दांतों का पूरा गिरना ऊपरी वायुमार्ग में संपीड़न का कारण बन सकता है। यह सांस लेने पर प्रतिकूल प्रभाव डालता है। अगर ऐसी स्थिति लंबे समय तक बनी रहती है और अनुपचारित छोड़ दी जाती है, तो यह शरीर की ऑक्सीजन की आवश्यकता को प्रभावित करती है और हृदय और श्वसन संबंधी समस्याएं पैदा कर सकती है।"
दंत चिकित्सा में, विशेषज्ञों ने कहा, इस स्थिति का इलाज मैंडिबुलर उन्नति उपकरण के साथ किया जा सकता है, एक मौखिक उपकरण जो अस्थायी रूप से जबड़े और जीभ को आगे बढ़ाता है, गले के कसने को कम करता है और वायुमार्ग की जगह को बढ़ाता है।
विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के लखनऊ कार्यालय के डॉ अंकुर ने कहा, "लगभग 80 प्रतिशत रोगियों को नहीं पता कि वे ओएसए से पीड़ित हैं और यह घातक हो सकता है, इसलिए लोगों को इसके बारे में बुनियादी जानकारी होनी चाहिए।"
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London, Aug 17 (IANS) Patients with Long Covid syndrome continue to have higher measures of blood clotting, which may help explain their persistent symptoms, such as reduced physical fitness and fatigue, finds a research.
While the dangerous clotting has been observed in patients with severe acute Covid-19, far less is known about Long Covid syndrome, where symptoms can last weeks to months after the initial infection has resolved and is estimated to affect millions of people worldwide.
Researchers from RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences in Ireland, examined 50 patients with symptoms of Long Covid syndrome to better understand if abnormal blood clotting is involved.
They discovered that clotting markers were significantly elevated in the blood of patients with Long Covid syndrome compared with healthy controls. These clotting markers were higher in patients who required hospitalisation with their initial Covid-19 infection, but they also found that even those who were able to manage their illness at home still had persistently high clotting markers.
In the study, published in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, the team observed that higher clotting was directly related to other symptoms of Long Covid syndrome, such as reduced physical fitness and fatigue. Even though markers of inflammation had all returned to normal levels, this increased clotting potential was still present in the Long Covid patients.
"Because clotting markers were elevated while inflammation markers had returned to normal, our results suggest that the clotting system may be involved in the root cause of Long Covid syndrome," said lead author Dr Helen Fogarty, doctoral student at the Irish Centre for Vascular Biology in the RCSI School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences.
In a separate study, a team from the University of Cambridge, in the UK, found that small protein molecules called cytokines could have a link to the Long Covid condition, the Daily Mail reported.
Cytokines, which are produced by the body in response to infections, are often found to be lingering in a person's body for months after infection.
They developed a simple new blood test that may determine whether or not Covid-19 survivors will experience long-term symptoms.
New York, Aug 12 (IANS) Researchers have found an important clue to a rare but serious after-effect of Covid-19 among those broadly below 12, known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or MIS-C.MIS-C is characterised by fever, pain, and inflammation of multiple organs including the heart, lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal tract. The researchers from Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, US, reported that RNA sequencing of blood samples led to the discovery that specific infection-fighting cells of the immune system are downregulated in children with MIS-C, and that this is associated with a sustained inflammatory response -- a hallmark of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. The study was published in Nature Communications.The team analysed pediatric cases of MIS-C and Covid-19 and found new exploratory pathways involving complex networks and subnetworks of genes.One of the more significant of these gene networks involved the suppression of two types of immune cells: natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. Previous research has shown that when CD8+ T cells are persistently exposed to pathogens, they enter a state of "exhaustion," resulting in a loss of their effectiveness and ability to proliferate. The researchers in the new study specifically pointed to the CD8+ T cells being in this exhausted state, thus potentially weakening the inflammatory immune response. An increase in NK cells is also associated with exhausted CD8+ T cells."Our study implicated T cell exhaustion in MIS-C patients as one of the potential drivers of this disease, suggesting that an increase in both NK cells and circulating exhausted CD8+ T cells may improve inflammatory disease symptoms," said Noam Beckmann, Assistant Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. "Additionally, we found nine key regulators of this network known to have associations with NK cell and exhausted CD8+ T cell functionality," Beckmann said.Beckmann added that one of those regulators, TBX21, is a promising therapeutic target because it serves as a master coordinator of the transition of CD8+ T cells from effective to exhausted. --IANSrvt/in
Muzaffarpur, July 17 (IANS) With no respite from the sweltering heat and humidity in Bihar, there has been a spurt in Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) cases in children in Muzaffarpur and surrounding areas.
As per the data released by Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital (SKMCH), Muzaffarpur, 41 children with symptoms of AES were admitted from Muzaffarpur and the adjoining districts, of which 33 children were confirmed to be suffering from AES.
Head of the Department of Paediatrics at SKMCH, GS Sahni, on Saturday said four children are undergoing treatment in the infant ward, in which AES has been confirmed in three children while one other patient is suspected to be suffering from this disease.
Till Friday this year, 41 children have been admitted to SKMCH from Muzaffarpur and surrounding areas reported to be suffering from this disease. As many as nine children have died.
The intensifying heat and humidity makes Muzaffarpur and the surrounding areas susceptible to AES outbreak in children. Every year a large number of children die of this disease.
The worst AES outbreak has been reported in various villages of Minapur, Kanti, Musahari and Paroo blocks of Muzaffarpur district. For the treatment of AES, a special hospital ward has been set up by the health department in Muzaffarpur.
From time to time, awareness campaigns have also been carried out in rural areas by the district administration and the health department but till date they have failed in eradicating this disease. However, a lesser number of patients suffering from this disease have been reported this year.
Toronto, June 21 (IANS) Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is rare but possible in adults who recover from Covid-19, say researchers. The condition has, so far, been detected only in children.
The researchers from University of Calgary in Canada's Alberta stressed the need for clinicians to suspect multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults when a patient has prolonged fever, with multiorgan involvement, after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus causing Covid-19.
The team described the possibility of the syndrome in adults in a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
The team described a 60-year-old man, who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 four weeks before, and visited hospital for a range of symptoms, including prolonged shortness of breath, high fever, swelling and severe fatigue. Tests found an enlarged heart and lung swelling as well as other issues.
"Given the patient's recent history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, fevers without localising symptoms, oral mucosal changes, cervical lymphadenopathy, conjunctivitis and lower extremity changes, we suspected inflammatory post-Covid-19 syndrome," wrote the team including Genevieve Kerkerian and Stephen Vaughan, infectious disease specialists from the varsity's Department of Medicine.
"The presentation was similar to reported cases of an uncommon but severe complication in children and adolescents infected with SARS-CoV-2, called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), as well as to Kawasaki-like illness," they added.
Prompt initiation of medication helped the patient to recover.
MIS-C was first described in April 2020 as a hyperinflammatory syndrome with features resembling Kawasaki disease. As of May 3, 2021, 3,742 children in the US had been formally diagnosed with MIS-C, with 35 related deaths.
Much is unknown about multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults.
In October 2020, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a review of 27 adult cases that fit the description of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The preliminary case of MIS-A, described to date has been in patients younger than 50 years.
"As we continue to learn about MIS-A, however, it is prudent not to assume any age limitation when considering the diagnosis, as our case suggests," the researchers said.
"Unlike for MIS-C, there is currently no requirement to report cases of MIS-A to provincial or state authorities, but this should be encouraged to facilitate research and improve patient outcomes," the authors noted.