Tokyo: Mycobacteria, a group of pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis in humans, are associated with red blood cells at lung infection sites.
M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria implicated in lung disease are now known to live in macrophages - white blood cells that engulf and kill pathogens. Mycobacteria turn up in blood and sputum coughed up by sick patients.
Red blood cells, although also found in the sputum of tuberculosis patients, have not yet been specifically studied in disease progression.
But, "our research will change the conventional common sense that mycobacteria grow intracellularly", said Yukiko Nishiuchi, Associate Professor at Hiroshima University in Japan.
The team obtained lung tissue samples from five mice infected with two species of Mycobacteria - M. avium and M. intracellulare - as well as from a human patient infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH).
Microscopic examination revealed red blood cells were co-located with mycobacteria in both the capillary vessels and granulomas (clumps of immune cells) of mice and human lung tissues.
To assess the relationship of the mycobacteria to human red blood cells, the team monitored their growth with and without the blood cells. They found that MAH grew more in the presence of red blood cells, multiplying at a rate dependent on blood cell concentration.
Their exponential growth was even faster than the growth of MAH inside macrophages - typically targeted as parasitic hosts by mycobacteria.
The findings, published in the journal Microbiology Spectrum, showed that pathogenic mycobacteria attach to human red blood cells, then capitalise on the relationship to multiply.
Mycobacteria had previously been found outside macrophages at infection sites; the new findings suggest that the presence of those extracellular mycobacteria may be a result of the relationship with red blood cells.
While red blood cells are best known for their role in transporting oxygen between lungs and tissues, they also play two roles in mycobacterial infections. They play a defensive role against infections by capturing pathogens and transferring them to macrophages in the liver and spleen to eliminate them.
Nishiuchi said the study shows that red blood cells may also get targeted as host cells for mycobacteria. However, how these roles play out might determine the outcome of an infection.
If the red blood cells' defense role is going well, the TB or other mycobacterial disease is controlled. But red blood cells overwhelmed by an attack of mycobacteria may help spread them throughout the body, Nishiuchi noted. (Agency)
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लंदन, 25 मार्च (आईएएनएस): वैज्ञानिकों की एक टीम ने पहली बार यह प्रदर्शित किया है कि हमारे दैनिक जीवन से प्लास्टिक के कण जैसे पानी की बोतलें, किराने की थैलियां, खिलौने और डिस्पोजेबल कटलरी, हमारे रक्त प्रवाह में पता लगाने योग्य स्तरों में समाप्त हो सकते हैं।
वैज्ञानिक पत्रिका एनवायरनमेंट इंटरनेशनल में प्रकाशित शोध से पता चलता है कि हमारे रहने वाले वातावरण से प्लास्टिक के छोटे-छोटे टुकड़े मानव रक्तप्रवाह में अवशोषित हो जाते हैं।
पॉलीएथिलीन टेरेफ्थेलेट (पीईटी), पॉलीएथाइलीन और स्टाइरीन के पॉलिमर रक्त के नमूनों में पाए जाने वाले प्लास्टिक के सबसे सामान्य प्रकार थे, इसके बाद पॉली (मिथाइल मेथैक्रिलेट) थे। पॉलीप्रोपाइलीन का भी विश्लेषण किया गया था लेकिन एक सटीक माप के लिए कन्संट्रेशन बहुत कम थी।
पीईटी आमतौर पर सोडा और पानी की बोतलों (कंटेनर) में पाया जाता है। दूध और घरेलू क्लीनर के लिए बोतलों में पॉलीथीन (ब्लो-एक्सटड्रेड किराना बैग, कैप और खिलौने) जबकि स्टाइरीन के पॉलिमर डिस्पोजेबल कटलरी, प्लास्टिक मॉडल, सीडी और डीवीडी मामलों में पाए जाते हैं।
एम्स्टर्डम में व्रीजे यूनिवर्सिटिट के इकोटॉक्सिकोलॉजिस्ट हीथर लेस्ली ने कहा, "हमने अब यह साबित कर दिया है कि हमारे रक्तप्रवाह, हमारी जीवन की नदी जैसे भी है, उसमें प्लास्टिक है।"
टीम ने मानव रक्त में सूक्ष्म और नैनोप्लास्टिक कणों के ट्रेस स्तर को स्थापित करने के लिए एक विश्लेषणात्मक विधि विकसित की है। अध्ययन में 22 प्रतिभागियों को शामिल किया गया था, जिनके रक्त की जांच प्लास्टिक के निर्माण खंड, पांच अलग-अलग पॉलिमर की उपस्थिति के लिए की गई थी।
टीम ने कहा कि तीन-चौथाई परीक्षण विषयों के खून में प्लास्टिक पाया गया। जबकि इसके लिए पहले के संकेतक प्रयोगशाला प्रयोगों से आए थे। नए शोध से पता चलता है कि लोग अपने दैनिक जीवन में अपने पर्यावरण से माइक्रोप्लास्टिक को अवशोषित करते हैं और यह मात्रा उनके रक्त में मापने योग्य होती है।
22 दाताओं के रक्त में प्लास्टिक कणों की कुल कन्संट्रेशन औसतन 1.6 माइक्रोग्राम/मिली लीटर (यूजी/एमएल) थी, जो 1,000 लीटर पानी (10 बड़े बाथटब) में एक चम्मच प्लास्टिक के बराबर है।
परीक्षण किए गए दाताओं में से एक चौथाई के रक्त में किसी भी प्रकार के प्लास्टिक कणों का पता लगाने योग्य मात्रा नहीं थी। टीम अब यह पता लगाना चाहती है कि इन कणों का रक्तप्रवाह से मस्तिष्क जैसे अंगों तक ऊतकों में जाना कितना आसान है।
यह भी पढ़े► सीवेज के नमूनों में पोलियो वायरस !
London, March 25 (IANS): A team of scientists have for the first time demonstrated that plastic particles from our day-to-day lives such as water bottles, grocery bags, toys and disposable cutlery, among others, can end up in our bloodstream in detectable levels.
The research, published in the scientific journal Environment International, shows that miniscule pieces of plastic from our living environment are absorbed into the human bloodstream.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene, and polymers of styrene were the most common types of plastic found in the blood samples, followed by poly(methyl methacrylate). Polypropylene was also analysed but the concentrations were too low for an accurate measurement.
PET is commonly found in soda and water bottles; containers; polyethylene in bottles for milk and household cleaners; blow-extruded grocery bags, caps, and toys while polymers of styrene are found in disposable cutlery, plastic models, CD's and DVD cases.
"We have now proven that our bloodstream, our river of life as it were, has plastic in it," said ecotoxicologist Heather Leslie from Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
The team developed an analytic method for establishing the trace level of micro and nanoplastic particles in human blood. The study included 22 participants, whose blood was examined for the presence of five different polymers, the building blocks of plastic.
Three-quarters of the test subjects appeared to have plastics in their blood, the team said.
While earlier indicators for this came from laboratory experiments, the new research shows that people absorb microplastics from their environment in their everyday lives and that the amounts are measurable in their blood.
The overall concentration of plastic particles in the blood of the 22 donors amounted to an average of 1.6 microgram/millilitre (ug/ml), which is comparable to a teaspoon of plastic in 1,000 lts of water (10 large bathtubs).
A quarter of the tested donors had no detectable quantities of plastic particles of any type in their blood.
"This dataset is the first of its kind and must be expanded to gain insight into how widespread plastic pollution is in the bodies of humans, and how harmful that may be. With this insight we can determine whether exposure to plastic particles pose threat to public health," said analytical chemist Marja Lamoree from the varsity.
The team now wants to address how easy it is for these particles to move from the bloodstream into tissues such as in organs like the brain. (agency)
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Whether we want to accept it or not, biologically men and women are very different. One of the important differences is in the way men and women use and store fat. Men on average have about 3 per cent essential fat as part of their composition - women have 12 per cent.
Essential fat is a percentage of total body fat mass that is necessary for insulation, protection of our vital organs, vitamin storage and building key cell messengers like steroids that are necessary for effective cell communication. Without this fat, the body does not function properly and our immune and neurological systems get affected.
Women have four times as much essential fat. Stored fat in women is actually beneficial to overall health. A baseline of 12 per cent of essential fat protects women from type two diabetes and even heart disease. This is important to understand because:
It helps with expectations and goal setting when you choose weight loss programmes:
Striving for 20 per cent body fat is unhealthy
There are three popular diets in the world: Keto Diet, Intermittent Fasting, and GM Diet. Unfortunately, these diets are not helpful especially for women who are thinking of significant weight loss (more than 15-20 kgs) and maintaining it permanently.
Let's look at these diet plans in detail:
The ketogenic diet is a low carb, high-fat diet. Restricting carbs and increasing fat intake can lead to ketosis, a metabolic state in which your body relies primarily on fat for energy instead of carbs. "Women's bodies always resist losing fat as it is essential for pregnancy and lactation, and it's essential."
Carb intake in the keto diet is typically limited to fewer than 50 grams per day, which can cause shock to women's bodies. When the carb quotient depletes, it switches to ketones and fat for fuel at the start of this eating pattern, women's brain and metabolism starts resisting fat loss.
It results in a complete imbalance leading to hormonal and metabolic changes. Also, Keto-type diets usually work only for a short term and can have side effects such as headaches, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and constipation.
Further, most of the initial weight loss is water weight. Once the body enters ketosis, we begin to lose muscle, become extremely fatigued, and eventually enter starvation mode which actually makes it even harder to lose weight.
A keto diet does more harm than good to the majority of women especially if they have any underlying medical conditions like PCOS, Irregular menses or Infertility.
Fasting is a practice that involves completely abstaining from eating or avoiding certain foods for a fixed period. In recent years, intermittent fasting has become increasingly popular with people looking to lose weight.
During studies, it was found that although intermittent fasting produced favourable results in people who were overweight or obese, women who tried it, had the following negative effects:
Severe mood swings
Obsessive thoughts about food
Overeating on days without restricted calories
Most women exhibit such behaviours in the first few weeks of intermittent fasting. It is also observed that by restricting calorie intake in this manner, it may interfere with their menstrual cycles.
The GM diet aims to help people lose weight by focusing on a specific food or food group each day for a week. The GM diet consists of a 7-day meal plan. Each day focuses on a specific food or food group.
Although the idea of substantial weight loss within a short period may seem attractive, the GM diet does come with risks which are:
Lacks Vital Nutrients
Women following the GM diet may not get enough of certain important food groups, such as healthy fats and protein. This diet may also lack essential vitamins and minerals that come with eating a wide variety of healthful foods.
Short-term Weight Loss
The GM diet is not a sustainable long-term weight-loss strategy. A woman may regain weight once they stop following the diet. One reason for this is that the diet does not necessarily teach techniques for healthy cooking or eating which is essential for long-term weight maintenance.
Other risks which are very common and can be aggravated in women in a few weeks include dehydration, headaches, fatigue, muscle weakness and inability to concentrate, In a nutshell, balanced calorie intake - macronutrients like carbs, proteins, fats, and micronutrients like vitamins and minerals which are essential for pregnancy, lactation and overall health of the women. Hence, eating a balanced meal during weight loss is advised. (Dr. Kiran Rukadikar, a renowned Obesity Physician and Weight Loss Specialist)
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New York: Keeping your gut in good health may be key as it can affect your personality as well as regulate energy levels, finds a study.
The study led by researchers from Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York, showed that gut bacteria which are responsible for the breakdown of food, and metabolomic pathways can influence a person's energy levels, fatigue, and their day-to-day personality, Daily Mail reported.
The team found that certain, distinct, bacteria were strongly associated with one of four defined personality traits a person could hold.
Although a gut microbiome does not often change, taking antibiotics or another drug that can alter the body's bacteria may be able to change a person's demeanour as a result.
"These new findings support previous studies which reported that feelings of energy are associated with metabolic processes, while feelings of fatigue are associated with inflammatory processes," lead researcher Dr Ali Boolani, a physical therapy professor at Clarkson, said in a statement.
"Since we are still learning about the gut microbiome, we don't know whether if we try to change our personality trait, we might see a change in gut microbiome; or if we try to change our gut microbiome, we might also change our personality trait," Boolani said.
For the study, published in the journal Nutrients, the team gathered data from 20 participants, the report said.
Each of the participants were screened to make sure they had not recently used a medicine that would effect their microbiome. Using stool samples, researchers investigated the levels of different bacteria in each of the participants.
They were also surveyed on four traits the Boolani believes are the base of a person's personality: mental energy, mental fatigue, physical energy, and physical fatigue.
Researchers found strong correlation between certain traits and certain bacteria found in each person's microbiome.
While the sample size of the study is relatively small, Boolani is hopeful that these findings could be a stepping stone for future investigation into how a person's mood can be affected by their gut, the report said. (agency)
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Finding it hard to regulate your hypertension? Eating a balanced diet, including protein from a variety of sources, may help adults lower the risk of developing high blood pressure, according to new research.
Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the leading contributors to cardiovascular disease. When left untreated, high blood pressure damages the circulatory system and is a significant contributing factor to heart attack, stroke and other health conditions.
The study, published in the journal Hypertension, showed that those people who ate four or more protein foods which include whole grains, refined grains, processed red meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, egg and legumes, had a 66 per cent lower risk of developing high blood pressure compared to those who ate less than two.
"The heart health message is that consuming a balanced diet with proteins from various different sources, rather than focusing on a single source of dietary protein, may help to prevent the development of high blood pressure," said Xianhui Qin, from the National Clinical Research Centre for Kidney Disease at Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University in China.
"Nutrition may be an easily accessible and effective measure to fight against hypertension. Along with fat and carbohydrates, protein is one of the three basic macronutrients," Qin added.
There is a strong association between poor diet quality and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death from cardiovascular disease. In its 2021 dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health, the American Heart Association advises people eat healthy sources of protein, mostly from plants and may include seafood and low-fat or fat-free dairy products, and, if desired, lean cuts and unprocessed forms of meat or poultry.
The American Heart Association also recommends eating one to two servings, or 5.5 ounces, of protein daily.
The team analysed health information for nearly 12,200 adults living in China. A trained interviewer collected 24-hour dietary information over three days in the same week during each round of the survey.
The analysis found more than 35 per cent of the nearly 12,200 participants developed new-onset high hypertension during follow-up.
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