India is witnessing a constant decline in the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), and as per Census 2001-2011, the sharpest decline in population has been recorded in this decade, in the last 100 years, the Centre has informed the Supreme Court.
"Furthermore, as per the Census, 2001-2011 is the first decade in the last 100 years which has not only added lesser population as compared to the previous one, but also registered the sharpest decline in the decadal growth rate from 21.54 percent in 1991-2001 to 17.64 percent in 2001-2011," said the affidavit filed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
The Centre pointed out the wanted fertility in India as per National Family Health Survey (NFHS) IV is only 1.8 as against the actual fertility of 2.2 prevailing at that time, indicating couples on an average do not want more than 2 children. However, in as many as 25 out of 36 states/UTs have already achieved the replacement level fertility of 2.1 or less. The affidavit said: "India is witnessing a constant decline in the TFR. The TFR which was 3.2 at the time when National Population Policy 2000 was adopted has declined substantially to 2.2 as per SRS 2018."
The Centre has emphasised that the Family Welfare Programme in the country is voluntary and it is unequivocally against forcing family planning on its people. "The Family Welfare Programme in India is voluntary in nature, which enables couples to decide the size of their family and adopt the family planning methods, best suited to them, according to their choice, without any compulsion", said the Centre.
The Centre said "public health" is a state subject. Therefore, states must deploy strategies for health sector reforms in a suitable and sustainable manner to protect the common people from health hazards. The Centre plays a supportive and facilitative role in achieving the health care reforms and outcomes, and acts as a facilitator for providing accessible and affordable health care through state-led reforms.
The affidavit emphasised that India has adopted a comprehensive and holistic National Population Policy (NPP) 2000, with clearly articulated objectives, strategic themes and operational strategies.
The National Health Policy (NHP), 2017 acts as a guiding force in shaping health systems in all its dimensions. "The NHP sets out indicative, quantitative goals and objectives which includes the achievement of total fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 by 2025", added the affidavit.
The health ministry has emphasised India can achieve the goal of population stabilisation and at present India is knocking at the door of achieving replacement level fertility, and has made remarkable improvement in reducing maternal and child mortality.
The response from the Centre came on a PIL by lawyer Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay challenging a Delhi High Court order, which dismissed his plea seeking two-child norm, to address the concerns of overpopulation. The Centre submitted the plea filed by Upadhyay is misconceived and devoid of merit. (IANS)
San Francisco, Nov 11 (IANS) Apple has finally allowed two developers to promote mask-wearing sticker pack apps for iOS, after rejecting them initially.According to The Verge, Apple earlier suggested that these develops were making "inappropriate references to the Covid-19 pandemic."Apple replied to the publisher that not only does the company not have any rules about mask-wearing stickers, but that both of these examples are totally ok and both developers have since confirmed that Apple has approved their apps."Apple called to clarify. Said there is no problem, content is approved. Said depiction of masks and hand washing in our app Emoji Me Animated Faces is fine. The policy is intended for apps that are marketed as Covid apps," Mark Johnson, one of the developer said in a tweet.However, it is not quite clear why they were rejected earlier. "Got a call from the App Store and I'm clear to add the masks back into the next update," said Jen Lewis, another developer.Apple said it's been careful only to let medical institutions and official health agencies mention "Covid-19" in their app names or metadata.--IANSwh/na
Toronto, Nov 3 (IANS) Researchers have found that depression symptoms and social anxiety are associated with greater use of mobile dating applications such as Tinder and Bumble among the women.This study, published in the journal 'Cyberpsychology, Behaviour, and Social Networking', explored associations between symptoms of social anxiety and depression with participants' extent of dating app use, self-reported motivations for dating app use, and the likelihood of initiating interaction with dating app matches.Recent research suggests that motivations beyond intimate relationship formation attract people to mobile dating applications."With increased symptoms of social anxiety and depression, women maybe even more likely to turn to technology for social connection, especially if alternative forms of social contact are reduced due to social avoidance," said study author Martin Antony from Ryerson University in Canda.For the results, 374 participants completed an online battery of surveys that examined psychopathology and dating app use.Social anxiety and depression symptoms were positively associated with participants' extent of dating app use, and symptoms of psychopathology and gender interacted to predict various dating app use motivations.Symptoms of social anxiety and depression predicted a lower likelihood of initiating contact with a dating app match among men but not women.This study provides an initial step towards understanding the relationship between social anxiety, depression, and use of dating apps.Among the men, the greater their social anxiety and depression symptoms, the less likely they were to initiate contact with matches on mobile dating apps."With mobile dating apps increasingly figuring into today's dating landscape, research studies are vital to understanding their merits as well as their shortcomings," the study authors noted.--IANSbu/dpb
Thirty-four-year-old Sonali admired how precise the ovulation calculators are in predicting their menstruation cycles, a piece of knowledge that can also act as a natural barrier to pregnancy, something she was looking for.
However, after she started using it, Sonali became pregnant.
Riya, 27, wanted to use the lockdown period to start a family and used an app to track her ovulation, but she failed to conceive in the last six months. Later, she was diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Sonali and Riya are among the 80% women who tracked their ovulation via fertility apps in order to conceive or dodge the pregnancy, but failed, according to the estimate shared by fertility expert Gauri Agrawal. She runs an IVF centre in New Delhi and aggregated the estimate from the patients she consulted in the lockdown period.
"Cases like these are not rare, in fact in the past few years, the growing dependence on information found online have further complicated the matter.
"About 80 per cent women in the lockdown period have complained to me that they followed such calculations but failed to conceive due to misleading results.
"With so many websites promising ovulation cycles, it is difficult to ascertain the veracity of the results due to which missed targets are becoming a common phenomenon," she said.
Agrawal said that calculating ovulation is important while planning or dodging a pregnancy. Besides, it keeps a check on ovulation symptoms such as spotting, tenderness in breasts, abdominal cramps or bloating, or increased sex drive. However, dependence on the apps for this could give misleading results.
"Fertility apps and ovulation calculators are used frequently by menstruating women of all ages for both getting pregnant as well as a means to avoid pregnancy naturally.
"However, the erratic nature of these tools may prevent them from achieving desirable results," she added.
Agrawal advised caution against using these apps and calculators and recommended to verify the results with a physical source such as an ovulation prediction kit or a doctor.
"One can never explain the parameters judged and the process followed by these apps and online calculators to derive conclusions. Women should not use fertility apps during the pandemic simply because they are too wary to visit their doctor. It is advisable to verify the results with an ovulation prediction kit or consult a doctor, even if it is through teleconsultation," she said.
In 2018, a study found that the accuracy of prediction by apps monitoring menstrual cycle was no better than 21 per cent. However, the study also found that such apps and calculators could help increase the woman's awareness about her menstrual cycle that averages between 28-32 days.
While most women ovulate between Day 11 and Day 21, with beginning with the first day of the last menstrual period as day 1, many, despite having regular periods and a regular cycle, may not ovulate due to various factors such as hormone problems.
"Women must keep in mind that since each human body is different physiologically, there can never be one solution to its problems. Being home to avoid getting infected many have prompted many women to plan natural pregnancy, depending on the results these apps and calculators show.
"However, causes of infertility, such as poor amount and quality of sperm, blocked fallopian tubes, or advanced age, cannot be fixed with an app or calculator. This makes seeing a physician to discuss birth control options and family planning a must," Agrawal added. (IANS)
New York, Sep 28 (IANS) As millions of people turn to their mobile devices to talk to chatbot-based health apps, researchers have revealed that existing apps lack the functions to support the full diagnostic process of a traditional visit to a medical facility.These chatbot-based symptom checker (CSC) apps can only support five processes of an actual exam: establishing a patient history, evaluating symptoms, giving an initial diagnosis, ordering further diagnostic tests, and providing referrals or other follow-up treatments, reports researchers from Pennsylvania State University."These apps do not support conducting physical exams, providing a final diagnosis, and performing and analysing test results, because these three processes are difficult to realise using mobile apps," said Yue You, a graduate student at Penn State's College of Information Sciences and Technology.In the study, the researchers investigated the functionalities of popular CSC apps through a feature review, then examined user experiences by analyzing user reviews and conducting user interviews. Through their user experience analysis, the team also found that users perceive CSC apps to lack support for a comprehensive medical history, flexible symptom input, comprehensible questions, and diverse diseases and user groups.The findings could inform functional and conversational design updates for health care chatbots, such as improving the functions that enable users to input their symptoms or using comprehensible language and providing explanations during conversations."Especially in health and medicine, [another question is] is there something else we should consider in the chatbot design, such as how should we let users describe their symptoms when interacting with the chatbot?" You said in a university statement.Additionally, the findings could help individuals understand the influence of AI technology, such as how AI could influence or change traditional medical visits.In the past, people generally trusted doctors.But now, with the emergence of AI symptom checkers and the internet, people have more sources of information. "How would this information challenge doctors? Do people trust this information and why? I think this work is a starting point to think about the influence of AI symptom checkers," the authors wrote.--IANSna/
Hypertension or high blood pressure has become common problem because of the lifestyle we lead. From our food habits to sleep patterns, to the levels of stress, all of these are major contributors. Through several researches it has been found that hypertension is known to affect about 700 million men in reproductive age group.
As the age of paternity rises in the developed world, issues of chronic disease may affect prospective fathers. Given the high prevalence of hypertension, researchers have begun to explore the relationship between hypertension and fertility related issues in men as well.
The current literature suggests an association between hypertension and semen quality. We know that hypertension affects the heart, brain, kidneys and eyes. It is also an inseparable part of metabolic syndrome which also includes obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, says Dr. Praveen Joshi, UroAndrologist, Cloudnine Group of Hospitals, Bengaluru.
But what we have ignored so far is the connection between hypertension and male fertility problems. Poor seminal parameters in men has become an area of global interest as they present higher mortality compared to normal semen analysis group, says the expert.
Dr. Joshi explains how hypertension can affect male fertility either directly or indirectly:
Direct effect: Hypertension has been found to cause structural changes in the testis which leads to inefficient functioning. Men with hypertension were found to be more likely to have one or more semen abnormalities compared to normotensive men. It has been found that hypertensive men have lower semen volume, lesser sperm concentration (number of sperms), and total motile sperms (capacity of the sperms to be forward). Some of the studies have shown that hypertension is associated with alterations in semen quality, evidenced by abnormal sperm morphology (normal appearing sperms) and increased sperm DNA fragmentation (Fragmented DNA or poor genetic content of the sperm). This not only worsens the chances of conception but also increases risk of miscarriages by 15% -20%
Infact a study evaluating the relation between HTN and endocrine disorders revealed lower serum testosterone. Testosterone is found to be 10% lower compared to normotensive men. And Testosterone is necessary for sperm production and maturation process of sperms.
Indirect Impact of Hypertension
Other known risk factors that have been linked to Hypertension and fertility related issues in men are as follows. It is usually associated with other metabolic comorbidities like Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Obesity and Insulin resistance. Hypertension can cause erectile dysfunction which may make it difficult for the couple to try for natural conception. Infact Erectile Dysfunction can be considered as an early warning of the cardiovascular illness and is predicted to precede a major heart attack by 5-7 yrs.
Sometimes the medications for HTN can be associated with semen abnormalities. Of all the groups of antihypertensives, beta blockers have been found to have highest abnormalities in semen parameters. Use of beta-blockers was associated with lower semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count.
So it is very important to know your health. It cannot be emphasized more to consult your doctor regularly in order to identify and control hypertension. One must do regular exercise to prevent metabolic syndrome and prevent obesity and Diabetes. Reproductive health of a man is becoming window to his overall health. Awareness about these issues not only allows to prevent infertility issues but also allows to avoid cardiovascular complications.
Examine how your job is affecting your health. If your job is extremely demanding, reducing the amount of heavy lifting you do could be beneficial.
Combat high blood pressure with a healthy diet and appropriate physical activity.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Practice stress management techniques.
(Puja Gupta can be contacted at [email protected])
Dear Patron, Please provide additional information to validate your profile and continue to participate in engagement activities and purchase medicine.