New York: People hospitalised during the pandemic both for Covid and other conditions have a higher rate of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections compared to patients hospitalised before the pandemic, according to a study.
An estimated 1.2 million people worldwide died in 2019 from antibiotic-resistant infections, and this number is predicted to increase ten-fold by 2050.
There have been studies reporting that the pandemic was associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) secondary infections, possibly due to the increase in the use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 patients and disruptions to infection prevention and control practices in overwhelmed health systems.
The study, presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) being held in Portugal, evaluated the pandemic's impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 271 hospitals across the US.
The researchers assessed AMR rates per 100 hospital admissions before and during the Covid pandemic, and examined whether drug-resistant infections were acquired in the community-onset setting (defined as a culture collected less than two days after admission) or in the hospital-onset setting (more than two days after admission).
In total, 1,789,458 patients were admitted to the hospital in the pre-pandemic period and 3,729,208 during the pandemic.
The number of patients admitted to the hospital with at least one AMR infection was 63,263 in the pre-pandemic period and 129,410 during the pandemic.
Patients who tested positive or negative for Covid had higher levels of AMR than patients before the pandemic, 4.92 per 100 admissions and 4.11 per 100 admissions, respectively.
For hospital-associated infections, the AMR rate was 0.77 per 100 admissions before the pandemic and 0.86 per 100 admissions during the pandemic, and highest at 2.19 per 100 admissions in patients with Covid-19.
When looking at community-onset infections, the AMR rate was 2.76 per 100 admissions in the pre-pandemic period, and 2.61 per 100 admissions during the pandemic.
"These new data highlight the importance of closely monitoring the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance rates, said Dr Karri Bauer from the US pharmaceutical company Merck.
"It is particularly worrying that antibiotic resistance has been rising during the pandemic in both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. Hospital-acquired infections are a major concern, with antimicrobial resistance rates significantly higher during the pandemic than before," he added. (Agency)
Read More► Omicron Ups Risk of Upper Airway Infections, Cardiac Arrest in Small Kids
New York: Because of their small and relatively collapsible airways, young children with Omicron are more vulnerable to upper airway infection such as croup, which if severe can lead to cardiac arrest, finds a study.
Croup is a type of respiratory illness, known medically as laryngotracheitis, in babies and young children. It is characterised by barking cough, and noisy breathing. In severe cases, it can dangerously constrict breathing.
A team of researchers from Universities of Colorado and Northwestern in the US, examined 18,849 children hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2.
Their results published in the JAMA Pediatrics showed that upper airways infection increased during the Omicron surge. More than one-fifth of children hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 and upper airways infection in the US developed severe disease.
About 384 had upper airway infection. Severe disease, defined as requiring invasive ventilation, vasopressors, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or death, occurred in 81 children.
The study also found that children with upper airways infection during the Omicron period were more likely to be younger and less likely to receive dexamethasone or develop severe disease compared with those in the pre-Omicron period.
"Children with severe upper airway infection are at risk of cardiac arrest from rapid-onset upper airway obstruction. They may require therapies typically provided in intensive care units, including frequent administration of nebulized racemic epinephrine, helium-oxygen mixtures, and intubation," said the researchers including Blake Martin, from Department of Pediatrics at University of Colorado's School of Medicine.
"While the rate of SARS-CoV-2 paediatric upper airway infection is not overwhelmingly high, understanding this new clinical phenotype and the potential for acute upper airway obstruction may help guide therapeutic decision-making," they added.
After being detected from African countries in November last year, Omicron soon gained presence worldwide and became the dominant strain, replacing Delta. It became dominant in the US the week ending December 25.
"Omicron is known to cause lower severity disease than the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. This may be because Omicron replicates less efficiently in lung parenchyma and more efficiently in the conducting airways," the researchers said.
The team explained that SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe paediatric disease, including acute Covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Published reports associating SARS-CoV-2 with upper airway infection, such as laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), have been limited to small case series.
Although non coronaviruses, including parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus, most frequently cause upper airway infection, coronaviruses (eg, type NL63) are also commonly implicated.
Read More► Study Reveals How Covid Can Lead to Long Term Pain
न्यूयॉर्क: ओमिक्रॉन वेरिएंट से संक्रमित 5 वर्ष से कम उम्र के बच्चों में डेल्टा वेरिएंट से संक्रमित लोगों की तुलना में गंभीर स्वास्थ्य परिणामों का जोखिम कम होता है। एक नए शोध में यह बात सामने आई है। पत्रिका 'जामा पीडियाट्रिक्स' में प्रकाशित शोध निष्कर्ष से यह भी पता चला है कि ओमिक्रॉन वेरिएंट डेल्टा की तुलना में 6 से 8 गुना अधिक संक्रामक है।
केस वेस्टर्न रिजर्व यूनिवर्सिटी स्कूल ऑफ मेडिसिन, क्लीवलैंड, ओहियो के शोधकर्ता रोंग जू ने कहा, "ओमिक्रॉन डेल्टा की तुलना में कम गंभीर है, हालांकि नैदानिक परिणामों में गंभीरता की सीमा में कमी केवल 16 से 85 प्रतिशत है।"
जू ने कहा, "इसके अलावा, चूंकि इतने सारे असंक्रमित बच्चे संक्रमित थे, मस्तिष्क, हृदय, प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली और बच्चों के अन्य अंगों पर कोविड-19 संक्रमण के दीर्घकालिक प्रभाव अज्ञात और चिंताजनक बने हुए हैं।"
शोध टीम ने पाया कि डेल्टा से संक्रमित 3.3 प्रतिशत की तुलना में ओमिक्रॉन से संक्रमित लगभग 1.8 प्रतिशत बच्चे अस्पताल में भर्ती थे।
टीम ने अध्ययन के लिए अमेरिका में 651,640 से अधिक बच्चों के इलेक्ट्रॉनिक स्वास्थ्य रिकॉर्ड का विश्लेषण किया, जिनका 9/2021 और 1/2022 के बीच स्वास्थ्य संगठनों के साथ चिकित्सा जांच हुई थी, जिसमें दिसंबर के अंत और जनवरी के अंत में ओमिक्रॉन से 22,772 से अधिक बच्चे संक्रमित थे, जबकि डेल्टा से 66,000 से अधिक बच्चे संक्रमित हुए थे।
शोध टीम ने अमेरिका में ओमिक्रॉन का पता लगाने से ठीक पहले डेल्टा से संक्रमित 10,000 से अधिक बच्चों के रिकॉर्ड की तुलना की थी।
5 वर्ष से कम उम्र के बच्चे अभी तक कोविड-19 टीकों के लिए पात्र नहीं हैं। उनमें पिछले सार्स-कोव-2 संक्रमणों की दर कम है। संक्रमण उनके शरीर में पहले से मौजूद प्रतिरक्षा तत्वों को भी सीमित कर देता है।
टीम ने सार्स-कोव-2 संक्रमण के बाद 14 दिनों की अवधि के दौरान बाल रोगियों के स्वास्थ्य परिणामों की जांच की। उन्होंने जिन कारकों की समीक्षा की, वे थे : आपातकालीन कक्ष का दौरा, अस्पताल में भर्ती, आईसीयू में प्रवेश और यांत्रिक वेंटिलेशन का उपयोग।
आगे जनसांख्यिकीय डेटा विश्लेषण में पाया गया कि ओमिक्रॉन से संक्रमित बच्चे औसतन छोटे थे - 1.5 वर्ष की आयु बनाम 1.7 वर्ष और उनमें दूसरे रोग कम थे।
यह भी पढ़े► फ्लू के साथ कोविड होने से गंभीर बीमारी और मौत का खतरा: लैंसेट
London: Genetic variants that damage the genome are associated with reduced reproductive success and an increased likelihood of not having children, suggests research.
According to researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute in the UK, one mechanism of natural selection that is removing damaging genetic variation from the population is increased childlessness.
It is likely linked to genetic influences on cognitive and behavioural traits, which may mean that men and women with these genetic variants are less likely to form reproductive partnerships.
However, the study, published in the journal Nature, also showed that this genetic link may play a very minor role in the overall likelihood of being childless. It accounts for less than one per cent when compared to more influential factors such as sociodemographic factors and choice.
In the study, the team included more than 340,000 participants, and investigated whether damaging genetic variants were associated with lower reproductive success by calculating for each person, how much damaging genetic variation they carry across their entire genome, known as their 'genetic burden'.
They tested whether genetic burden was associated with the number of children that the participants had, and found it was associated with men with the highest genetic burden having an average 0.26 fewer children - but this was not seen in women.
The team also found that increasing genetic burden was associated with a higher chance of being childless in both men and women, but much more so in men.
"It's important to emphasise that we have not found a 'gene for childlessness', as that implies a strong, causal effect of genetic variation on whether or not someone will have children. Instead we have shown that people with damaged genomes, particularly men, are slightly more likely to be childless," said Eugene Gardner at the MRC Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge.
"This is probably due to the effect of damaging genetic variants on cognitive and behavioural traits, which make these men less likely to find a partner to have children with," said Gardner, who was at the Wellcome Sanger Institute while doing the research.
While the genetic burden is not associated with infertility, both men and women with a higher genetic burden were more likely to have mental health disorders. (agency)
Read More► Antibiotics After Birth Affects Gut Microbes of Babies
वाशिंगटन: अमेरिका में बीते एक महीने में करीब 270,000 बच्चे कोरोना पॉजिटिव हुए हैं। ये जानकारी अमेरिकन एकेडमी ऑफ पीडियाट्रिक्स (एएपी) और चिल्ड्रन हॉस्पिटल एसोसिएशन की रिपोर्ट से सामने आई है।
समाचार एजेंसी सिन्हुआ की रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, देश में 2 साल से ज्यादा समय पहले महामारी की शुरूआत के बाद से लगभग 1.28 करोड़ बच्चे कोरोना संक्रमित हुए हैं।
रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, 19 प्रतिशत बच्चे कोरोना पॉजिटिव हैं। 17 मार्च को समाप्त हुए पिछले सप्ताह में कुल 31,991 बच्चे कोरोना पॉजिटिव पाए गए।
बीते 4 हफ्तों में लगभग 270,000 बच्चों के मामले दर्ज किए गए हैं। रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, सितंबर 2021 के पहले सप्ताह से अब तक 77 लाख से ज्यादा बच्चों के मामले सामने आए हैं।
आप ने कहा कि नए रूपों से संबंधित बीमारी की गंभीरता के साथ-साथ संभावित दीर्घकालिक प्रभावों का आकलन करने के लिए ज्यादा डेटा इक्ठ्ठा करने की तत्काल जरूरत है। (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► कोरोना का नया वैरिएंट फिर मचा सकता है तबाही: फौसी
London: Respiratory infections often persist in people with lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis despite treatment due to the presence of multiple bugs that reduce the efficacy of antibiotics, reveals a study.
In such cases, where other microbes are present, much higher doses of antibiotics are needed to eliminate a bacterial infection of the airways, according to the findings published in The ISME Journal.
In the study, researchers from the University of Cambridge in London showed that even low levels of one type of microbe in the airways can have a profound effect on the way other microbes respond to antibiotics.
The results highlight the need to consider the interaction between different species of microbe when treating infections with antibiotics and to adjust dosage accordingly.
"People with chronic infections often have co-infection with several pathogens, but the problem is we don't take that into account in deciding how much of a particular antibiotic to treat them with," said Thomas O'Brien, who carried out the research for his doctorate in the University of Cambridge's Department of Biochemistry.
"Our results might help explain why, in these people, the antibiotics just don't work as well as they should," O'Brien added.
Chronic bacterial infections such as those in the human airways are very difficult to cure using antibiotics.
Although these types of infection are often associated with a single pathogenic species, the infection site is frequently co-colonised by a number of other microbes, most of which are not usually pathogenic in their own right.
Treatment options usually revolve around targeting the pathogen, and take little account of the cohabiting species. However, these treatments often fail to resolve the infection.
In the study, the team developed a simplified model of the human airways, containing artificial sputum ('phlegm') designed to chemically resemble the real phlegm coughed up during an infection, packed with bacteria.
The model allowed them to grow a mixture of different microbes, including pathogens, in a stable way for weeks at a time.
This is novel, because usually one pathogen will outgrow the others very quickly and spoil the experiment. It enabled the researchers to replicate and study infections with multiple species of microbe, called 'poly-microbial infections', in the laboratory.
The three microbes used in the experiment were the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Candida albicans a combination commonly present in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis.
The researchers treated this microbial mix with an antibiotic called colistin, which is very effective in killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. But when the other pathogens were present alongside Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the antibiotic didn't work.
"We were surprised to find that an antibiotic that we know should clear an infection of Pseudomonas effectively just didn't work in our lab model when other bugs were present," said Wendy Figueroa-Chavez in the University's Department of Biochemistry.
The same effect happened when the microbial mix was treated with fusidic acid an antibiotic that specifically targets Staphylococcus aureus, and with fluconazole an antibiotic that specifically targets Candida albicans. (agency)
Read More► Kidney Disease May Be A Silent Killer: Experts
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