London: Symptoms of Covid-19 infection appear in 42 hours after being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus, much earlier than previously thought, finds a study.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), Covid symptoms take around five to six days to appear after infection.
But the study led by Imperial College London researchers showed that symptoms start to develop very fast, on average about two days after contact with the virus.
The infection first appears in the throat; infectious virus peaks about five days into the infection and at that stage is significantly more abundant in the nose than the throat.
The findings published on a pre-print server and not yet peer-reviewed also showed that the virus was detected first in the throat, significantly earlier than in the nose (40 hours in the throat compared to 58 hours in the nose)
The levels were lower and peaked sooner in the throat.
Peak levels of virus were significantly higher in the nose than in the throat, indicating a potentially greater risk of virus being shed from the nose than the mouth.
This highlights the importance of proper face mask use to cover both the mouth and nose, the researchers said.
The team also found that lateral flow tests (LFTs) are a reassuringly reliable indicator of whether infectious virus is present (that is, whether they are likely to be able to transmit virus to other people).
However, the LFT tests were less effective in picking up lower levels of virus at the very start and end of the infection.
"Our study reveals some very interesting clinical insights, particularly around the short incubation period of the virus, extremely high viral shedding from the nose as well as the utility of lateral flow tests with potential implications for public health," said Christopher Chiu, Department of Infectious Disease and the Institute of Infection at Imperial College.
In the trial, 36 healthy male and female volunteers aged 18-30 years, unvaccinated against Covid-19 and with no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Participants were exposed to the lowest possible dose of virus found to cause infection, roughly equivalent to the amount found in a single droplet of nasal fluid when participants were at their most infectious.
Among the 18 infected participants, the average time from first exposure to the virus to viral detection and early symptoms (incubation period) was 42 hours, significantly shorter than existing estimates, which put the average incubation period at five to six days.
Following this period there was a steep rise in the amount of virus (viral load) found in swabs taken from participants' nose or throat.
These levels peaked at around five days into infection on average, but high levels of viable (infectious) virus were still picked up in lab tests up to nine days after inoculation on average, and up to a maximum of 12 days for some, supporting the isolation periods advocated in most guidelines. (agency)
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Long term exposure to ambient air pollution may heighten the risk of Covid-19 infection, suggests research.
The study, published online in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine, showed that both Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and 10 were significantly associated with an increased Covid-19 infection rate.
Every 1 microgram/cubic metre increase in long term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 5 per cent increase in the number of new cases of Covid-19 infection, equivalent to 294 extra cases per 100,000 of the population/year.
"Our findings provide the first solid empirical evidence for the hypothesised pathway linking long-term exposure to air pollution with the incidence of Covid-19, and deserve future generalisation in different contexts," said Giovanni Veronesi from the Department of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Insubria, Italy.
"Meanwhile, government efforts to further reduce air pollution levels can help to mitigate the public health burden of Covid-19," Veronesi added. While population density wasn't associated with a heightened risk of infection, living in a residential care home was associated with a more than 10-fold heightened risk of the infection.
The associations were even more noticeable among older age groups, indicating a stronger effect of pollutants on the Covid-19 infection rate among 55-64 and 65-74-year-olds. However, as this is an observational study, and as such, can't establish the cause, they said.
But long term exposure to air pollution also heightens the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases through persistent inflammation and compromised immunity. These same pathways may therefore be involved in the link between air pollution and higher Covid-19 infection rates, the researchers noted.
Further, drug treatment for diabetes, high blood pressure, and obstructive airway diseases, as well as a history of stroke were also associated with, respectively, a 17 per cent, 12 per cent, 17 per cent, and 29 per cent, heightened risk.
For the study, the team looked at long term exposure to airborne pollutants and patterns of Covid-19 infection from the start of the pandemic to March 2021 among the residents of Varese, the eighth-largest city in Lombardy - worst affected region in terms of both cases and deaths due to Covid.
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लंदन- हवा में आने के पहले पांच मिनट के भीतर ही कोरोनावायरस के संक्रमण फैलाने की क्षमता में काफी कमी आ जाती है और 20 मिनट के अंदर कोरोनावायरस 90 प्रतिशत तक बेदम हो जाता है। एक नए अध्ययन (स्टडी) में यह खुलासा हुआ है।
अंग्रेजी अखबार गार्जियन में छपी खबर में स्टडी के बारे में बताया गया है। कोविड-19 के बढ़ते प्रकोप के बीच इसे लेकर जारी शोध एवं विमशरें में नई जानकारियां सामने आ रही हैं। अब एक नए शोध में सामने आया है कि यह खतरनाक वायरस हवा के संपर्क में आने के 20 मिनट बाद संक्रमण करने की अपनी क्षमता को काफी हद तक खो देता है।
शोध के निष्कर्ष में यह भी सामने आया कि इस वायरस से बचने का सबसे आसान और प्रभावी तरीका मास्क पहनना और सामाजिक दूरी (सोशल डिस्टेंसिंग) नियमों का पालन करना है। स्टडी के अनुसार, इस वायरस के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए वेटिंलेशन (हवादार जगह) एक सार्थक उपाय है।
ब्रिस्टल यूनिवर्सिटी के एरोसोल रिसर्च सेंटर के डायरेक्टर और इस रिसर्च के प्रमुख लेखक जोनाथन रीड के मुताबिक, लोग खराब वेटिंलेशन वाले इलाके में रहकर सोचते हैं कि एयरबोर्न संक्रमण से दूर रहेंगे। उन्होंने कहा कि मैं यह नहीं कहता कि ऐसा नहीं है, मगर यह भी तय है कि एक दूसरे के करीब रहने से ही कोरोना संक्रमण फैलता है।
उन्होंने कहा कि जब एक शख्स से दूसरे शख्स के बीच कुछ दूरी होती है तो वायरस अपनी संक्रामकता खो देता है क्योंकि ऐसे में उसका एरोसोल पतला होता जाता है। ऐसी स्थिति में वायरस कम संक्रामक होता है।
शोधकर्ताओं ने हवा में वायरस के फैलने को लेकर रिसर्च किया है, जिसमें वायरस को दो इलेक्ट्रिक रिंगों के बीच हवा में तैरने दिया गया है। शोधकतार्ओं ने वायरस युक्त कण उत्पन्न करने के लिए एक उपकरण विकसित किया और उन्हें कड़े नियंत्रित वातावरण में पांच सेकंड और 20 मिनट के बीच कहीं भी दो इलेक्ट्रिक रिंगों के बीच तैरने की इजाजत दी गई।
रिसर्च में वैज्ञानिकों ने देखा कि एक इंसान के फेफड़े से निकलने के बाद कोरोना के वायरस का पानी काफी तेजी से खत्म हो जाता है और वातावरण में मौजूद कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड के लोअर लेवल के संपर्क में आने के बाद वायरस की क्षमता प्रभावित होती है।
रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, हवा में आने के कुछ देर बाद कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड मानव कोशिकाओं को संक्रमित करने की वायरस की क्षमता को प्रभावित करता है।
रिसर्चर्स ने पाया कि, किसी ऑफिस के एक ऐसे वातावरण में, जहां आसपास के क्षेत्र की आद्र्रता आमतौर पर 50 प्रतिशत से कम होती है, वायरस पांच सेकंड के भीतर अपनी संक्रमण फैलाने की 50 प्रतिशत क्षमता खो देता है और धीरे धीरे वायरस बेअसर होने लगता है।
इसके साथ ही, ज्यादा आद्र्र वातावरण में, उदाहरण के लिए, स्टीम रूम या शॉवर रूम में वायरस की रफ्तार काफी धीमी हो जाती है। हालांकि, शोधकर्ताओं ने पाया कि तापमान ने वायरल संक्रामकता पर थोड़ा अंतर डाला है और गर्म वातावरण में इस वायरस की रफ्तार ज्यादा तेज होती है।
ऐसी परिस्थितियों को देखते हुए जोनाथन रीड ने मास्क पहनने के महत्व पर प्रकाश डाला और इसे पहनने की अपील की।
शोधकर्ताओं को सभी तीन सार्स-सीओवी-2 वैरिएंट में ऐसा ही समान प्रभाव देखने को मिला, जिसमें अल्फा भी शामिल है। रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि शोधकर्ता आने वाले हफ्तों में ओमिक्रॉन वैरिएंट के साथ भी प्रयोग शुरू करने की उम्मीद कर रहे हैं। (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► कोविड से उबर चुके लोगों में ओमिक्रॉन वेरिएंट से दोबारा संक्रमित होने की संभावना 3 से
Winter has arrived, bringing with it dry, flaky skin and hair. Frizzy, lifeless, and damaged hair, as well as dry skin, cannot be blamed only on the winters. Our skin and hair are influenced by many different things, like the ultraviolet radiation from the sun or pollution, particularly pollution from cities.
One of the worst enemies of skin and hair is pollution. Established industries, car emissions, and cigarette smoking all contribute to rising pollution levels. The most harmful pollutants are particulate matter (PM), which includes PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and poisonous gases like SO2, NO2, NO, CO2 and CO2.
"The exposure to smoke, dust, toxic gas, particulate matter, nickel, lead and arsenic can lead to a condition called 'Sensitive Scalp Syndrome', which happens when this particulate matter settles on the scalp and in the hair shafts.""Pollution exposure can cause chemical damage to the hair. It leads to degrading hair protein, affects the hydrophilic hair surface niche and damages the hair cuticles."
"According to a recent research, Intense exposure to the pollutants also affects the skin, reduces the stratum corneum (outer skin layer) quality, increases the dark spots, intensity wrinkles, fine lines and affects the normal composition of natural sebum production."
"Pollution exposure, particularly PM, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and PAHs are also known to inflame the skin, increases the oxidative stress in the skin and working synergistically with harmful sun rays, these pollutants can be one of the main reasons of skin cancer."
All these facts are enough to understand how dangerous and detrimental pollution is for our skin and hair. We need to take some proper precautions to protect our hair and skin from this natural enemy. Here's a list of some of the best pollution skincare and hair care suggestions for you today:
Skin Care Tips
Applying Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen Every Day is Important
A broad-spectrum sunscreen with the power of antioxidants is the right option for your skin to protect it from the effects of pollutants. A broad-spectrum sunscreen gives your skin a shield against UVA, UVB, and IR rays. However, the richness of antioxidants in a sunscreen provides full protection from pollution. This is why you don't apply sunscreen even a single day throughout the year.
Must Cleanse The Face After Returning The Home
We rinse our face in the morning for freshness, but in the evening cleansing, the face not only provides you with freshness but also a big relief from dust, grime, and pollutants. Select charcoal-based or active ingredients like vitamin C or retinol-based serums to deeply cleanse your skin from the particles of pollutants. Never skip this step, no matter how tired you are. For healthy skin, this step is a must.
Give Your Skin The Night Skin Repair Therapy
The other thing you need to include in your night skin care routine is a good repair face serum or cream. Retinol, vitamin C or ferulic acid-based face serums are best to repair polluted skin. These ingredients are rich in antioxidants, which help to neutralise free radicals, reduce oxidative stress and reduce pollutant-induced skin damage.
Go For A Home-Based Detox Face Pack Every Week
There is an ultimate DIY detox face pack that you will love to apply to your face, especially if you are a chocolate or coffee lover. You'll need cocoa powder and ground coffee beans for this pack.
These two ingredients contain the best antioxidants to cleanse the face. Take both ingredients in an equal quantity and add coconut oil or milk to make a fine paste. Add honey if you want to, and apply it to your face. Let it dry and rinse your face with normal water. Apply a moisturiser afterwards.
Hair Care Tips
Cover your hair with cloth or hat when outside
Whenever outside, make sure to cover your hair with a cloth or a hat, as it will hinder the direct contact of pollutants with your hair. In the winter, this may be the best option.
Don't Forget to Apply A Good Hair Serum
If you are unable to cover your hair, you must apply a hair protecting serum before going out. It forms a thin covering layer over your hair and protects it from toxic gases and other urban pollutants. The hair serum not only gives shine to the hair but also works as a protector of the hair and keeps it intact from pollution and heat.
Rinse The Hair Every Two to Three Days
Make sure to rinse your hair every 2 to 3 days, especially if you live in an area with high pollution levels. It will clear up all the dirt and pollutants from your scalp, and you can flaunt healthy, wavy, luscious hair.
Give Your Hair A Keratin Spa or Keratin Mask
Pollutants can also impact hair protein levels. To restore it, you should go to a keratin spa at home using a good hair mask. For this, you need 1 tablespoon of almond oil, 1 tablespoon of honey, and 1 egg yolk. Mix the ingredients and apply the paste on the overall scalp and hair. Keep it for about an hour and shampoo the hair.
These tips can protect you from pollution and revive your skin and hair to maintain their natural essence. Along with these, you must add antioxidant-rich foods like citrus fruits, broccoli, spinach, onions, garlic, and turmeric to revive skin and hair from the inside. (Mr. Rajesh Grover, Co-Founder, Derma Essentia)
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The World Health Organization (WHO) has associated approximately 4.2 million premature deaths per year with health issues related to air pollution. According to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) outdoor air pollution is related to more deaths than unsafe sex leading to HIV/AIDs, unsafe water, or malaria. Annual air pollution-related diseases also have a much higher death toll than Covid-19 to date.
With the country's air quality plummeting to hazardous levels after Diwali, people are complaining of respiratory trouble such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and incessant coughing. The high pollution levels are also likely to impact more people this year as a significant proportion of people who recovered from Covid-19 might not have completely healthy lungs. People are opting for various measures to combat the ill effects of pollution. Listed below are some important products that you can get your hands on to fight pollution.
1. Phillips Air Purifier: This purifier is the one product that everyone should own. It comes with 4 stage filtration and automatically senses the air quality and removes 99.97 per cent of airborne pollutants. It can purify a standard room within 12 minutes and provide real-time air quality feedback.
2. GO2 Therapy, Portable Oxygen Cans: gO2therapy was launched in April 2021. It is the second generation of high-purity (99 per cent+) portable Oxygen can, which is highly useful in our day-to-day life situations like pollution and emergencies. gO2 therapy can be used to perform oxygen therapy at home to help the body fight the ill effects of the city's pollution and not only increase mental and physical performance among fitness enthusiasts but also help in dealing with respiratory issues.
3. SmileDrive Portable Air Quality Meter: This portable meter is a great way to detect air quality indoor and outdoor. It detects the air around through air scattering detection. The big monitor screen can be used easily at the home, office or outdoors in the car. It has an inbuilt rechargeable battery and runs 10 times faster to provide accurate readings.
4. Boldfit N95 Reusable Masks: The N95 face mask, as suggested by doctors provides personal protection against dust, allergens, fog haze and is anti-odour. It is made of activated carbon that has cotton to ensure that the skin remains fresh all day. It also provides protection against dust and could be worn outdoors and indoors.
5. Environics Envirochip: Envirochip is clinically tested and certified with proven health benefits. It protects you from the harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation. It helps to reduce stress and boosts protects your immunity so that you can use your tech gadgets safely.
The small chip comes with one-of-a-kind technology that helps nullify the harmful effect of e-radiation emitted by a laptop/ mobile phone/ Smart TV/ Monitor, etc without compromising device performance. You can easily stick the chip at the body of your laptop or mobile phone the chip built on the foundation of radiation protection technology, changes the nature of electromagnetic radiation, making it harmless to the human body. (Agency)
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World Alzheimer's Day- Constant exposure to noise pollution may increase the risk of dementia caused due to Alzheimer's disease while music could have positive impact, say doctors.
According to a recent study published in international health journals around the world, constant exposure to traffic noise increases the risk of dementia among aged population.
Each year, September 21 is commemorated as the World Alzheimer's Day, and Alzheimer's disease has been found to be the commonest cause of dementia.
Doctors say with India fast racing towards becoming the most populated country in the world, and with improved healthcare delivery mechanism, aged population is on the rise in the country. This section of the society is at the risk of developing age-related complications like dementia, which is often considered a serious mental problem caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normally.
Commenting on the problem, Sritheja Reddy, Consultant Neurologist, Gleneagles Global Hospital believes that music usually has a soothing effect on individuals of all ages, but loud and persistent noise can cause mental disturbance, and could even trigger experiences of ill being among those people who are suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's related problems. "Cities are usually bustling with great activity during the day times and in the nights, but this could increase exposure to excessive noise, that can lead to short term impairments in cognitive function, particularly with respect to the ability to focus and remember. And the most important aspect here is that chronic exposure to noise pollution may increase the risk for dementia," the doctor said.
Abhinay M. Huchche, Consultant Neurologist, SLG Hospitals says that musical sounds could have a positive impact on people suffering from dementia, caused due to Alzheimer's disease." Listening to or singing songs can provide emotional and behavioral benefits for people with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. Musical memories are often preserved in Alzheimer's disease because key brain areas linked to musical memory are relatively undamaged by the disease," he added.
Changala Praveen, Consultant - Neurophysician, Aware Gleneagles Global Hospital pointed out that ageing patients require extra attention, and those impacted by dementia require proper evaluation and management of the disease through a multidisciplinary approach. "Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause for dementia, and there are multiple reasons for aged population developing this problem. Constant exposure to loud and unsavoury sounds like traffic noise is also a major cause for the older people to develop dementia. People who have aged family members in the house must ensure the elderly are protected from loud noises, and this is the best solution to arrest complexities," he said.
Having exposure to high levels of noise during the night is especially concerning, as sleep is a critical period for mental and cognitive restoration. Fragmented sleep resulting from noise disturbance is associated with increased oxidative stress causes alterations in the immune system and increased systemic inflammation.
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