New York, May 5 (IANS) High-intensity exercise produces more respiratory aerosols that can be harmful and aid in the transmission of Covid-19, and using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) device can effectively filter out the aerosols, finds a study.Aerosols are a common component of breath, and a typical mode of transmission for respiratory viruses like Covid-19 to spread to other people and surfaces.The researchers from Mayo Clinic in the US set up a special aerosol laboratory in a plastic tent with controlled airflow. Two types of laser beam particle counters were used to measure aerosol concentration at the front, back and sides of a person riding an exercise bike. Eight exercise volunteers wore equipment to measure their oxygen consumption, ventilation and heart rate.The aerosol concentrations increased exponentially throughout the test. Specifically, exercise at or above 50 per cent of resting heart rate showed significant increases in aerosol concentration, as per the findings published online in CHEST."In a real sense, I think we have proven dramatically what many suspected? That is why gyms were shut down and most exercise testing laboratories closed their practices. Exercise testing was not listed as an aerosol-generating procedure prior to our studies because no one had specifically studied it before," said Thomas Allison, Director of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing at Mayo Clinic in Rochester."Exercise generates millions of respiratory aerosols during a test, many of a size reported to have virus-carrying potential. The higher the exercise intensity, the more aerosols are produced," Allison said.In a follow-up study, the team found that a HEPA filter could mitigate the aerosols generated during exercise testing by filtering them out of the air immediately after they came out of the subject's mouth."We found that 96 per cent plus or minus 2 per cent of aerosols of all sizes generated during heavy exercise were removed from the air by the HEPA filter. As a result, we have been able to return to our practice of performing up to 100 stress tests per day without any recorded transmission of Covid in our exercise testing laboratories," Allison said.--IANSrvt/vd
New York, April 15 (IANS) Maintaining a daily exercise routine in youth may help reduce risk of high blood pressure or hypertension and dementia in later life, according to a study.People with moderate exercise for at least five hours a week during early adulthood had 18 per cent lower risk of developing hypertension than for those who exercised less than five hours a week. The likelihood was even lower for participants who maintained their exercise habits until age 60.While current guidelines indicate that adults should have a minimum of two-and-a-half hours of moderate intensity exercise each week, but the study led by University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) reveals that boosting exercise to as much as five hours a week may protect against hypertension in midlife -- particularly if it is sustained in one's thirties, forties and fifties.In the study, published in American Journal of Preventive Medicine, researchers followed approximately 5,000 adults ages 18 to 30 for 30 years. The participants were asked about their exercise habits, medical history, smoking status and alcohol use. Blood pressure and weight were monitored, together with cholesterol and triglycerides.Hypertension was noted if blood pressure was 130 over 80 mmHg, the threshold established in 2017 by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association."Results from randomised controlled trials and observational studies have shown that exercise lowers blood pressure, suggesting that it may be important to focus on exercise as a way to lower blood pressure in all adults as they approach middle age," said Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, UCSF Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics."Teenagers and those in their early twenties may be physically active but these patterns change with age. Our study suggests that maintaining physical activity during young adulthood -- at higher levels than previously recommended -- may be particularly important," Bibbins-Domingo added.--IANSrvt/rs
Regular exercise or a 30-minute brisk walk in the neighbourhood park or in your society five days a week while following the social distancing norms can improve your chances of beating Covid-19, reveals a significant study that analysed 48,440 adults who were Covid positive.
On the other hand, patients who were consistently inactive had 1.73 times greater chances of ICU admission, while the risk for death was 2.49 times greater for patients who were consistently inactive.
Other than being over the age of 60 or having a history of organ transplant, being consistently inactive conferred the highest risk for death from Covid-19.
Even patients who were inconsistently active had lower chances for severe Covid-19, suggesting any amount of physical activity has benefit, revealed the findings published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
"This is a wake-up call for the importance of healthy lifestyles and especially physical activity," said Robert E Sallis, physician at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Centre in the US.
"People who regularly exercise had the best chance of beating Covid-19, while people who were inactive did much worse," Sallis added.
For the study, the team identified 48,440 adults with a Covid-19 diagnosis from January 1, 2020, to October 21, 2020.
They found 6.4 percent were consistently active and 14.4 percent were consistently inactive, with the remainder falling in the inconsistently active category. Among all Covid-19 patients, 8.6 percent were hospitalised, 2.4 percent were admitted to the ICU, and 1.6 percent died.
"What surprised me the most from this study was the strength of the association between inactivity and poor outcomes from Covid-19," said Deborah Rohm Young from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California.
"Even after we included variables such as obesity and smoking in the analysis, we still saw inactivity was strongly associated with much higher odds of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death compared with moderate physical activity or any activity at all," Young added.
The results showed that inactivity is strongly associated with poor Covid-19 outcomes, Sallis said, while suggesting walking 30 minutes a day, five days a week at a moderate pace, to prevent Covid-19.
"Exercise is medicine that everyone should take -- especially in this era of Covid-19," Sallis said. (Agency)
New York, April 9 (IANS) Exercise and a healthy diet in childhood leads to adults with bigger brains and lower levels of anxiety, a new study suggests.
The mouse-model study determined that early-life exercise generally reduced anxious behaviors in adults. It also led to an increase in adult muscle and brain mass.
"During the Covid-19 lockdowns, particularly in the early months, kids got very little exercise. For many without access to a park or a backyard, school was their only source of physical activity," said researcher Marcell Cadney from the University of California - Riverside.
"It is important we find solutions for these kids, possibly including extra attention as they grow into adults," Cadney added.
The researchers determined that early-life exercise generally reduced anxious behaviours in adults. It also led to an increase in adult muscle and brain mass. When fed "Western" style diets high in fat and sugar, the mice not only became fatter, but also grew into adults that preferred unhealthy foods.
For the study, published in the journal Physiology and Behavior, the researchers divided the young mice into four groups -- those with access to exercise, those without access, those fed a standard, healthy diet and those who ate a Western diet.
Mice started on their diets immediately after weaning and continued on them for three weeks, until they reached sexual maturity.
After an additional eight weeks of "washout," during which all mice were housed without wheels and on the healthy diet, the researchers did behavioural analysis, measured aerobic capacity, and levels of several different hormones.
One of those they measured, leptin, is produced by fat cells. It helps control body weight by increasing energy expenditure and signaling that less food is required.
Early-life exercise increased adult leptin levels as well as fat mass in adult mice, regardless of the diet they ate.
Toronto, March 26 (IANS) Aerobic exercise may reduce several hemodialysis-related symptoms experienced by patients with kidney failure, a new study finds.The study indicated that aerobic exercise lessened several hemodialysis-related symptoms, including restless leg syndrome, symptoms of depression, muscle cramping, and fatigue."We found that as little as 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise two to three times per week seemed to improve several common symptoms in people undergoing hemodialysis and make them feel better," said researcher Clara Bohm, from the University of Manitoba in Canada."There have been very few rigorous, well-designed studies published that look at the effect of exercise on symptoms in people undergoing hemodialysis, and larger studies that use standardized measurement tools are needed to help us determine the effect of exercise on common symptoms in these patients more clearly," Bohm added.Hemodialysis is a procedure where a dialysis machine and a special filter called an artificial kidney, or a dialyzer, are used to clean blood.According to the team, undergoing hemodialysis to treat their kidney failure doesn't always reduce these symptoms, and it can sometimes make some symptoms worse.Importantly, people receiving hemodialysis have noted that finding effective treatments for hemodialysis-related symptoms should be a research priority.For the study, published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, the research team searched the medical literature and analyzed all relevant studies investigating the effects of aerobic exercise on dialysis-related symptoms.The search uncovered 15 randomized controlled trials, with different studies looking at restless leg syndrome, sleep disturbance, symptoms of anxiety and depression, muscle cramping, and fatigue.The researcher said that there are many hemodialysis-related symptoms for which the effect of exercise has not been studied, and most people included in published trials were men with relatively high levels of physical function."Future studies need to include people with diverse characteristics, particularly more women, elderly individuals, and people with low functional status, to see if exercise has similar effects," Bohm said.--IANSvc/in
Barcelona, March 23 (IANS) Caffeine -- about 3 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg), the equivalent of a strong coffee -- ingested half an hour before aerobic exercise significantly increases the rate of fat-burning, suggests a new study.The study, published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, also found that if the exercise is performed in the afternoon, the effects of the caffeine are more marked than in the morning."The results of our study showed that acute caffeine ingestion 30 minutes before performing an aerobic exercise test increased maximum fat oxidation during exercise regardless of the time of day," said lead researcher Francisco Jose Amaro-Gahete from the University of Granada in Spain.For the study, the researchers aimed to determine whether caffeine -- one of the most commonly-consumed ergogenic substances in the world to improve sports performance -- actually does increase oxidation or "burning" of fat during exercise. A group of men with a mean age of 32 participated in the research, completing an exercise test four times at seven-day intervals. Subjects ingested 3 mg/kg of caffeine or a placebo at 8 am and 5 pm (each subject completed the tests in all four conditions in a random order). The conditions prior to each exercise test (hours elapsed since last meal, physical exercise, or consumption of stimulant substances) were strictly standardized, and fat oxidation during exercise was calculated accordingly.In summary, the findings of this study suggest that the combination of acute caffeine intake and aerobic exercise performed at moderate intensity in the afternoon provides the optimal scenario for people seeking to increase fat-burning during physical exercise.--IANSvc/pgh
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