लंदन| यूरोपियन रेस्पिरेटरी सोसाइटी इंटरनेशनल कांग्रेस में प्रस्तुत शोध ने बताया है कि निकोटीन युक्त ई-सिगरेट के उपयोग से ब्लड क्लॉटिंग होने में वृद्धि होती है। ब्लड वेसल में विस्तार और ब्लड विस्तार करने की क्षमता में गिरावट आती है, साथ ही हृदय गति और ब्लड प्रेशर में वृद्धि होती है।
निकोटीन शरीर में एड्रेनालाईन जैसे हार्मोन के स्तर को बढ़ाने के लिए जाना जाता है,जो ब्लड क्लॉटिंग को बढ़ाता है।
स्वीडन के स्टॉकहोम में करोलिंस्का इंस्टीट्यूट के नेतृत्व में किए गए छोटे अध्ययन में 18 से 45 वर्ष की आयु के 22 महिलाओं और पुरुषों के एक समूह का विश्लेषण किया गया, जो कभी-कभार धूम्रपान करने वाले थे वही लोग स्वस्थ थे।
निष्कर्षों से पता चला कि निकोटीन युक्त ई-सिगरेट का उपयोग करने से स्वयंसेवकों में तत्काल अल्पकालिक परिवर्तन हुए। टीम ने 15 मिनट के बाद ब्लड क्लॉटिंग का औसतन 23 प्रतिशत की वृद्धि का पता लगाया है, जो 60 मिनट के बाद सामान्य स्तर पर लौट आया।
हेलसिंगबर्ग अस्पताल के एक चिकित्सक और संस्थान के शोधकर्ता गुस्ताफ लियटिनन ने कहा, निकोटीन युक्त ई-सिगरेट का उपयोग करने से शरीर पर पारंपरिक सिगरेट पीने के समान प्रभाव पड़ता है। रक्त के थक्कों पर यह प्रभाव महत्वपूर्ण है, क्योंकि हम जानते हैं कि लंबे समय में यह ब्लड वेसल को बंद और संकुचित कर सकता है, और यह निश्चित रूप से लोगों को दिल के दौरे और स्ट्रोक के खतरे में डालता है।
शोधकर्ता ने कहा कि शरीर पर निकोटीन के प्रभाव सहित पारंपरिक सिगरेट पीने से होने वाले नुकसान सर्वविदित हैं।
यह भी पढ़े► कोविड महामारी के दौरान बच्चों का बढ़ा वजन : अध्ययन
London, Sep 6 (IANS) Using e-cigarettes containing nicotine causes an immediate increase in the formation of blood clots and a deterioration in the ability of small blood vessels to expand and dilate, as well as raised heart rate and blood pressure, according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress on Monday.Nicotine is known to increase levels of hormones such as adrenaline in the body, which in turn can increase the formation of blood clots.The small study led by Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden analysed a group of 22 women and men aged between 18 and 45 years who were occasional smokers but otherwise healthy.The findings showed that using e-cigarettes containing nicotine created a set of immediate short-term changes in the volunteers. The team discovered an average 23 per cent increase in blood clots after 15 minutes that returned to normal levels after 60 minutes. There were also increases in the participant's heart rates (from an average of 66 beats per minute/bpm to an average of 73bpm) and blood pressure (from an average of 108 millimetres of mercury/mmHg to an average of 117mmHg). Researchers found that the volunteers' blood vessels became temporarily narrower after they used nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.These effects were not seen after volunteers used e-cigarettes that did not contain nicotine. "Our results suggest that using e-cigarettes that contain nicotine have similar impacts on the body as smoking traditional cigarettes. This effect on blood clots is important because we know that in the long-term this can lead to clogged up and narrower blood vessels, and that of course puts people at risk of heart attacks and strokes," said Gustaf Lyytinen, a clinician at Helsingborg Hospital and researcher at the Institute.While the damage caused by smoking traditional cigarettes, including the effects of nicotine on the body, are well-known, e-cigarettes are relatively new, and less is known about its effect on the body, said the researchers noting the need for more research to understand the effects.--IANSrvt/rs
New Delhi- PRAHAR (Public Response Against Helplessness and Action for Redressal), an NGO dedicated to finding solutions for problems of the helpless on Thursday released findings of the first-ever survey among actual users of tobacco products conducted to understand the likely impact of the proposed COTPA Amendment Bill 2020.
The survey polled 1986 respondents across 14 cities spanning Delhi NCR, Jaipur, Lucknow, Ranchi, Kolkata, Guwahati, Mumbai, Nagpur, Vadodara, Bhopal, Chennai, Bangalore, Vijayawada, and Hyderabad.
Explaining the need for the study, Abhay Raj Mishra, President and National Convenor, PRAHAR said, "It is an established principle that before framing any law which affects a class of stakeholders, the views of the affected party must be sought. However, in the course of framing and seeking a public response to the provisions of COTPA Amendment Bill 2020 no attempt was made to seek the views of the consumers and actual users of tobacco products. Unlike other groups, consumers are not cohesively represented by any associations or bodies. Therefore, PRAHAR took it upon itself to collect the views of the users and table it for the consideration of the policymakers."
"What comes out loud and clear from this first-ever study among actual users is huge disgruntlement with the proposed amendments. Consumers believe that the proposed provisions significantly curtail their fundamental rights and freedom to make informed choices and in certain cases will even cause harassment and subject consumers to mental cruelty. COTPA 2020 proposed amendments are self-defeating as instead of serving tobacco reduction goals, they will distort the market structures and lead to an increase in the growth of illegal and inferior products. What we need is a sustained awareness programme to achieve the goals of tobacco control instead of coercive policy measures." he added.
The survey found that 87% of the participants do not support the proposal to ban the sale of loose cigarettes. They believe that this decision to reduce tobacco consumption may instead force smokers to buy full packs which will make cigarettes readily available in their hands leading to an increase in consumption of tobacco.
As per the survey, 57% of consumers buy loose cigarettes as it helps them to smoke less, while only 19% go for it because it is cheaper. Only 7% of respondents felt that ban on the sale of loose cigarettes will make them smoke less.
On the subject of disallowing branding of tobacco products at the point of sale, 76% of respondents said they do not support this proposal. This is because 55% felt that it will limit their fundamental right to make an informed decision as branding is a reinforcement of the legality of the product they are buying. This is particularly relevant because the market is flooded with illegal and smuggled products. 25% of the consumers feel that the move will encourage unscrupulous retailers to promote products that give them more margin.
On the contentious issue of increasing the age for tobacco consumption from the current 18 years to 21 years, a huge majority of 78% of respondents said that they do not support the move. This is because anyone above 18 years of age is an adult as per the Constitution of India which enshrines them the right to exercise choices like marriage and voting, and tobacco should not be any different. 37% of respondents believe that it is their fundamental right to decide whether to consume tobacco or not. Around 8% also felt that this ban will make younger people below 21 years buy illegal products from underground sources.
The survey found little support for the amendment to introduce a ban of designated smoking areas in hotels, restaurants, and domestic airports with a whopping 82% of respondents stating that they do not support such a move. According to feedback from the consumers, this step will lead to harassment and make smokers a subject of mental cruelty by law. If there is no other resort, 51% of consumers confessed to switching over to other forms of tobacco like smokeless products while in transit or outing, which will force them to consume an inferior form of tobacco. Only 13% said they will not smoke while in transit or outside. (IANS)
Chandigarh- Online availability of cheap herbal cigarettes and 'bidis' which are being illegally marketed as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarettes is a matter of concern, warn researchers from the Oral Health Sciences Centre of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) here.
They said on Wednesday that regulations are urgently needed on sale and marketing of these products under the healthcare category.
These herbal products, containing potentially harmful substances rather than nicotine or tobacco, are being marketed as health-promoting products, said Oral Health Sciences Centre's head Krishan Gauba, one of the researchers.
In their research published online in the journal Tobacco Control, they say the cheap herbal cigarettes and 'bidis' -- a blend of certain herbs rolled in 'tendu' leaves -- are widely available online.
They are often marketed as a safer and healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, along with various other unverified 'health' claims.
The fact is that though these products do not contain any nicotine or tobacco, but have other potentially harmful substances, and may act as a gateway product to conventional tobacco products, explained Arpit Gupta, a faculty from the PGIMER.
He advocated that the sale and marketing of these products must be urgently regulated.
Similar to the illegal sale of imported cigarettes, without adhering to specified health warnings, both in pictorial and text formats, in this region, the herbal cigarettes and 'bidis' are also widely available in the market.
Because of their rising popularity among the youth worldwide, the PGIMER researchers said they wanted to find out the mode of availability and marketing of the herbal cigarettes.
In this study, Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines were used to find retail web pages offering herbal smoking products, including cigarettes and 'bidis'.
Out of the initial 1,044 records retrieved, 73 retail web pages were included in the final analysis which revealed 24 brands, produced by 18 manufacturers, offering 189 different flavours in packs of five to 20 sticks.
Nearly two thirds (62 per cent) of the webpages sold herbal cigarettes; 12 per cent sold herbal 'bidis'; and 26 per cent sold herbal 'shisha' or hookah.
Forty-three websites (59 per cent) spelt out health benefits in their product descriptions, of which 41 per cent claimed the benefits to be based on complementary medicine; the remainder was manufacturers' own claims.
The claims included use as a smoking cessation aid (40 per cent); a stress reliever (19 per cent); and to ease respiratory symptoms, including Covid-19 (15 per cent).
Other claims included use as a mood enhancer; a treatment for jetlag; a concentration or energy booster; and digestive aid.
Only 16 per cent of the webpages clarified that the claims 'had not been evaluated by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)' or any other regulatory authority.
Fewer than three per cent cautioned: 'Any type of smoking is injurious to health'. And none of the retail web pages listed the possible harmful effects associated with smoking these products.
Two thirds (67 per cent) of the included retail web pages didn't require any proof of age before purchase, and just 22 per cent stated 'not to be sold to minors'.
The average customer rating was 3.61 out of a maximum of five. The pack price (20 sticks) as per the researchers ranges from Rs 51 to Rs 1,830, equivalent to $0.7 to $ 25.
Researcher Ashima Goyal said the study has reported the vast availability of herbal smoking products in various flavours at affordable prices in the e-retail market and unfortunately these are being sold as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking without any age restriction or verification and on the pretext of being nicotine-free.
The study also emphasised that although touted as a healthy alternative to conventional cigarettes, these still contain potentially harmful chemicals and the exhaled carbon monoxide may affect the people in immediate vicinity.
Trade insiders told IANS major cities and towns in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are markets of illegal sale of the herbal cigarettes, besides imported and cheap Indian brand of cigarettes that are routed from Delhi, posing a threat to the health of smokers who are getting hooked to the cheap quality of brands sans health warnings.
The insiders say Punjab alone has an annual legal market of 120 million cigarettes and the grey market accounts for 20-30 per cent.
Chandigarh and Panchkula cities have an annual legal market of 20 million and 10 million cigarettes respectively, and the illegal market has a share of 15-20 per cent.
Most of the illegal cigarette brands attract the retailers as they are available at a significantly lower price than the legal cigarettes. They are sold in the market at one fifth the price of the legal product, said an investigator. (agency)
New York, If you are planning to quit smoking, then picking up vaping to reduce the frequency can be a bad idea, researchers say.
According to the researchers, combining traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes may result in harmful health effects similar to smoking cigarettes exclusively.
"Some people who smoke cigarettes, pick up e-cigarette use to reduce the frequency with which they smoke cigarettes. They often become dual users of both products rather than switching entirely from one to the other," said Andrew C. Stokes, Assistant Professor at Boston University School in the US.
"If e-cigarettes are used as a means to quit smoking, cigarette smoking should be completely replaced and a plan to ultimately attain freedom from all tobacco products should be advised," Stokes added.
The study suggests that the participants who used both cigarettes and e-cigarettes had levels of all inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers comparable to those who smoked exclusively.
For the study, published in the American Heart Association's flagship journal Circulation, researchers studied the association of cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use with inflammation and oxidative stress as biomarkers in more than 7,100 US adults.
According to the researchers, inflammation and oxidative stress are key contributors to smoking-induced cardiovascular disease and their biomarkers have been shown to be predictors of cardiovascular events, including heart attack and heart failure.
Five biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed. Participants were slotted into four categories based on the use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes within a 30-day period: non-use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes; exclusive vaping; exclusive cigarette smoking; and dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.
To test the robustness of initial results, the scientists repeated the analyses in subgroups of respondents, including those with no past 30-day use of any other tobacco products.
Of the study participants, more than half (58.6 per cent) did not use cigarettes or e-cigarettes; nearly 2 per cent vaped exclusively; about 30 per cent smoked cigarettes exclusively; and about 10 per cent used e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes.
The analysis found that participants who vaped exclusively showed a similar inflammatory and oxidative stress profile as people who did not smoke cigarettes or use e-cigarettes.
Participants who smoked exclusively and those who used cigarettes and e-cigarettes had higher levels across all biomarkers assessed compared to participants who did not use cigarettes or e-cigarettes.
Compared to participants who smoked exclusively, those who vaped exclusively had significantly lower levels of almost all inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. (IANS)
Johannesburg, Dec 23 (IANS) The Western Cape High Court in South Africa has ruled that the cigarette sales ban during the countrys hard lockdown period was not necessary or in keeping with the South African Constitution.British American Tobacco South Africa (BATSA) and others had taken the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (Cogta), President Cyril Ramaphosa and the National Coronavirus Command Council to court in May over the ban of tobacco product sales. The three Western Cape High Court judges who presided over the case said Regulation 45, which Cogta Minister Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma relied upon to effect the ban, "cannot and does not withstand constitutional scrutiny". They said "The respondents have not shown that regulation 45 was necessary nor that it fulfilled and/or furthered the objectives" of the National Disaster Management Act. Because of this, the judges ruled the regulation was ultra vires, which means the government acted beyond its powers. In court, the government had argued that the ban was aimed at reducing the occupation of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds by smokers. If people didn't smoke, they'd likely not get Covid-19 in more severe form, it argued. But BATSA maintained that the government had not justified the ban in law or science. The judges agreed with BATSA but acknowledged that the government was faced with a novel virus which necessitated urgent implementation of measures to curb its spread and for this reason. The court ruled that each party should pay their own costs because the prohibition on the ban had already been lifted, and because the government was dealing with something completely new and had to act swiftly. "The respondents were under both a constitutional and moral obligation to act swiftly at a time when very little was known about the Covid-19 pandemic. To mulct them with costs would, in any circumstances, be unjustified," read the judgment. In a statement, BATSA said that its view that the tobacco sale ban was "unjustified and unconstitutional" had been vindicated by the high court ruling. "The five-month-ban on tobacco and vapour products sales was ill-considered, unlawful and has worsened the illicit trade in cigarettes and vapour products in the country," the statement mentioned. It reiterated the previous calls from the South Africa government, to urgently ratify the World Health Organization (WHO) Illicit Trade Protocol-which would help eradicate the illicit sale of cigarettes. "This is the only way for the country to claw back tax loses resulting from the explosion in illicit trade that occurred during the ban on tobacco and vapour products," it said. --IANS san/in