We are aware that wrinkles are ridges, folds, or creases in the epidermis of the skin. As we become older, they naturally develop. It is however perfectly normal to have wrinkles on your skin. As we age, our skin normally becomes drier, thinner, and less elastic. However, it may be concerning if you start to wrinkle before your time.
First of all let's understand why we get wrinkles, their causes and their prevention from the experts:
Wrinkles are primarily brought on by the sun. UV radiation from sunlight can penetrate the deepest layers of skin and break down collagen, which makes the skin less flexible. Wear sunscreen that is suited for your skin type whether you are inside or outside, whether you are driving or just relaxing by the window. Given the previous weather, SPF 30 or higher is recommended. The sun's indirect rays might also lead to wrinkles. People who work in the sun are more likely to get early wrinkles. Wrinkles may be avoided by donning clothes that cover the skin, such as long sleeves or a hat.
Smoking and Alcohol Consumption
Smoking often reduces the blood flow to the skin, accelerating skin ageing. Skin is dried out by alcohol. As a result, the skin loses strength and flexibility. Wrinkles start to develop as the skin begins to sag. So for the sake of your skin, give up drinking and smoking.
Squinting and particularly active facial movements like furrowing your brows and frowning can also contribute to wrinkles. When you squint, your facial muscles stiffen up. Dr Karuna Malhotra, Cosmetologist and Aesthetic Physician from Cosmetic Skin Clinic, New Delhi said "As a result, your skin cells become squeezed and lose their suppleness. Many individuals have a tendency to squint. But you may change this negative behaviour and stop wrinkles from forming by making conscious efforts."
Stress is a Key Culprit
Dr Sandeep Babbar, Medical Director and Dermatologist from Revyve Skin, Hair and Nail Clinic, Faridabad explained "As we age, the body produces less collagen, and stress also decreases collagen production and can cause inflammation. Collagen loses flexibility and rigidity as it ages, making it less effective at promoting skin regeneration and wound healing. Both a loss of flexibility and persistent brow furrowing brought on by stress can cause wrinkles. Stress can also cause wrinkles to emerge because high amounts of the stress hormone cortisol can break down the collagen and elastin in the skin."
If you have dry skin, you are more likely to have wrinkles. People with dry skin produce less sebum, the skin's natural moisturiser, which acts as a barrier to shield your skin from the whims of the climate. Regularly moisturise at least twice a day to prevent wrinkles because doing so prevents dryness, which reduces the likelihood that wrinkles will appear.
Lack of Sleep
Lack of sleep makes skin healing more difficult. The skin's ability to retain moisture is compromised, as well as the pH level. All of this causes insufficient collagen formation, which speeds up the development of wrinkles.
Excessive Cosmetic Use
Your skin can benefit from cosmetics, but overusing them could have the opposite effect said Dr Karuna Malhotra. They could cause rashes, edoema, clogged pores, and other unfavourable outcomes. All of them can delay the onset of wrinkles by reducing the production of collagen and sebum.
On the other hand, dietary deficiencies wreak havoc on your skin, causing breakouts, rashes, dry skin, wrinkles before their time, etc. If you don't get enough vitamins, your skin may start to show it by becoming dry, pigmented, dull, or overly oily. Your face and body show the effects of the food you eat. Include vitamins C, D, B, E, and K in your diet; these nutrients are crucial for maintaining healthy skin.
"People may go for a variety of treatments to get rid of wrinkles. Making lifestyle adjustments like moisturising, using sunscreen, eating a good diet, being less stressed out, exercising regularly, giving up smoking, and drinking less alcohol can help you delay or prevent wrinkles. For deeper wrinkles, a person can also require procedures like microdermabrasion, botox, fillers, chemical peels, facelifts, etc" said Dr Sandeep Babbar. (Agency)
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Winters in India are not the same throughout the country. While the northern parts do have colder winters, the south is usually more tropical and does not see extreme temperature variations. Nowadays, this situation is changing; the extreme climate change that has been gripping the globe has not left the country untouched. On one hand, the winter has become colder, foggier, and more polluted in the northern parts whereas the south is experiencing drastic temperature variations with colder nights and comparatively warmer days. This unbalanced climate outside has led to many health problems in the population. A few such issues are frequent colds, coughs,s, and chest congestion that affect the respiratory system.
These are more common in small babies and school-going children as they have weaker immunity. The symptoms may include a blocked nose, running nose, cough with or without expulsion of sputum, sore throat, hoarseness of voice, wheezing, rhonchi sounds while breathing, chest congestion, and sometimes sinus headaches. The general relief mantra is keeping warm and taking hot potency medicines. Minor cases of cold and related respiratory problems can be effectively managed at home, but if the symptoms are severe consulting a doctor is always advisable.
Gargling repeatedly with hot water added with salt, turmeric, or Triphala Choorna is very beneficial in case of throat pain and hoarseness of voice.
In babies below six months of age, medication is not really advised but the medicines can be given through breast milk by medicating the mother who in most cases may also be suffering from the same symptoms.
A really effective herb that can help in improving immunity, digestion, and intelligence in babies and one that can be given even to newborns is Vacha (Vach)/ Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus). A very small quantity of this dried herb is rubbed on a rough surface and the paste can be given with a little amount of ghee.
Dry ginger is also a very effective herb in cases of cold and congestion. It can be used as an ingredient in masala tea, boiled with drinking water, or chewed in small quantities by both children and adults.
Another very important plant for cold, fever and chest congestion in both children and adults is the Parnayavani (Sanskrit)/ Panikoorka (Malayalam)/ Karpooravalli (Tamil)/ Doddapatre (Kannada)/ Pathar Choor (Hindi)/ Indian borage/Mexican mint. The leaves of this plant are slightly warmed and crushed to extract their juice. This juice can be given along with honey. The leaves can also be used in drinking water.
Tulasi is also a very handy solution for this set of symptoms. Water boiled with Tulasi reduces fever, cold, and congestion and improves immunity. Tulasi leaves can also be eaten directly after washing them.
Trikatu is a combination of three dry spices that is usually given in diseases that occur during the winter. It consists of dry ginger, dry black pepper, and dry long pepper powdered together. This polyherbal is used in many formulations in ayurveda and is the major component of Dashamoolakatutraya Kashaya that is specifically given in conditions of cough, cold, and chest congestion.
The most effective method of unblocking the nose and giving relief to the congested chest is exposure to steam. This process of steaming and induction of sweat is called sudation. Steaming can be done by exposing the chest and face to the vapours coming from hot water. For better liquefaction of the sputum herbs like Tulasi and Parnayavani can be added to the water.
Even though many effective treatments are available for respiratory issues during the winter, it is always better to prevent such symptoms. Here are a few precautionary measures that can keep you healthy during cold spells.
Always try to stay warm with a proper winter wardrobe.
Especially cover the ears during traveling and at night.
Do not drink cold water or eat anything refrigerated.
Drink hot water preferably boiled with beneficial herbs.
In places with high pollution and fog, it is essential to wear a mask for protection.
Do not take a shower in cold water and do not sleep with wet hair.
Children should be taught personal hygiene ethics so that they do not get infected by contact with sick kids at school. (Dr. Lakshmi Varma K is a [BAMS, MD(Ayu)] Consultant & Advisor at LYEF Wellness)
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The number of people diagnosed with or dying from primary liver cancer per year could rise by more than 55 per cent by 2040, reveals a new analysis.
According to a new report, published in the Journal of Hepatology, countries must achieve at least a 3 per cent annual decrease in liver cancer incidence and mortality rates to avoid this increase.
"Liver cancer causes a huge burden of disease globally each year," said researcher Isabelle Soerjomataram, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Cancer Surveillance Branch, Lyon, France.
"It is also largely preventable if control efforts are prioritised major risk factors include hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcohol consumption, excess body weight, and metabolic conditions including type 2 diabetes," Soerjomataram added.
For the research, the team extracted data on primary liver cancer cases and deaths from the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2020 database, which produces cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 36 cancer types in 185 countries worldwide.
The predicted change in the number of cancer cases or deaths by the year 2040 was estimated using population projections produced by the UN.
Results showed that in 2020, an estimated 905,700 individuals were diagnosed with liver cancer and 830,200 died from liver cancer globally.
According to these data, liver cancer is now among the top three causes of cancer death in 46 countries and is among the top five causes of cancer death in nearly 100 countries, including several high-income countries.
Liver cancer incidence and mortality rates were highest in Eastern Asia, Northern Africa, and South-Eastern Asia. Investigators predict the annual number of new cases and deaths from liver cancer will rise by more than 55 per cent over the next 20 years, assuming current rates do not change.
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Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition that causes pale white patches to appear on the skin. A lack of Melanin, which is a pigment found in the skin causes Vitiligo. Although vitiligo can affect any part of the skin, it is most common on the face, neck, hands, and skin creases. It can also begin in the lips, tips of fingers, and genital areas.
Vitiligo affects people of all skin colours, but it may be more visible in people with dark skin. This disorder is not fatal or infectious, and while it is classified as an autoimmune disorder, it is rarely associated with problems in other endocrine organs such as the thyroid or adrenal glands.
The appearance of vitiligo, on the other hand, can cause stress and low self-esteem. It's difficult to predict how this disease will progress. Without treatment, the patches may stop forming. In most cases, pigment loss spreads to cover the majority of the skin. In rare cases, the skin regains its colour.
Signs and Symptoms of Vitiligo
The symptoms of vitiligo can appear at any phase of life. The signs include:
Loss of skin colour in patches, usually seen first on your face, hands, arms, legs, and feet
Early paling of your body hair, including hair on the lashes brows and face if the areas are involved.
Mostly it is asymptomatic and there are no symptoms like itching or pain.
Thyroid and Adrenal gland problems.
Detection of Vitiligo
Following a skin examination, a dermatologist will be able to detect vitiligo. In order to rule out other skin conditions, the doctor will look for symptoms associated with them, such as other hypopigmentary disorders like common eczemas or healing psoriasis lesions. The doctor will most likely examine every area of your skin to determine which type of vitiligo you have based on where the patches appear. Patches are easy to spot on dark skin.
However, because there is less distinction between affected and unaffected skin in lighter-skinned people, the doctor may use a tool called a Wood lamp (which emits ultraviolet light). Under this type of light, vitiligo skin will appear different. The application can also be used to differentiate between loss of pigment and reduction in colour.
The appearance of lightened patches and the patient's medical history are sufficient to diagnose vitiligo. Doctors may, however, recommend additional tests for confirmation. A skin biopsy, for example, will reveal whether or not melanocytes are present. The absence of melanocytes can be used to confirm a vitiligo diagnosis.
A skin biopsy can also reveal whether the patient has hypopigmented cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a type of skin cancer. A blood test is frequently recommended by doctors to determine whether the vitiligo is caused by an underlying autoimmune disease, such as anaemia or type 1 diabetes.
Because of the association with other autoimmune diseases and endocrinopathies, patients with suggestive signs or symptoms may require additional testing to rule out an underlying condition. Thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, pernicious anaemia, Addison disease, and alopecia areata have all been linked to vitiligo.
Although there is no cure for vitiligo, proper treatment can halt or slow the discoloration process and restore some colour to the skin. The procedures' goal is to achieve an even skin tone by either restoring colour (repigmentation) or removing the remaining colour (depigmentation). Some of the most common treatments for vitiligo include camouflage therapy, repigmentation therapy, light therapy, and surgery. (Dr. Sunil Prabhu, MBBS, MD, DNB Dermatologist, Venereologist and Aesthetic Physician)
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Biological, social and behavioural factors have led to differences in the most common causes of health problems faced by men and women. Men die younger than women and bear a greater burden of disease throughout their lives. They get sick at a younger age and have illnesses that last longer than women. Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer and depression are the top male killers. However, men also face male-specific issues such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Heart disease comes in many forms. All its manifestations can lead to serious and fatal complications if they are not noticed. One in three adult men has some form of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and stroke are also common in men under the age of 45. Lifestyle modification and routine medical checkups can help manage heart-related risks, as your doctor can calculate your risk for cardiovascular disease based on several risk factors, including cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking habits.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in men after heart disease. Skin, prostate, colon and lung cancers are among the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men. The combination of a healthy lifestyle and regular checkups ensures that disease stays at bay. Regularly applying sunscreen, avoiding alcohol and tobacco, and reducing red meat consumption all help reduce the risk of cancer.
Diabetes usually sets in without showing any signs. It raises blood sugar levels and eventually passes into the urine. Increased urination and thirst are the first visible signs of diabetes. High glucose acts like a slow poison on blood vessels and nerves throughout the body. Heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure and amputations are the consequences for many men.
If left untreated, diabetes causes nerve and kidney damage, increases the risk of heart disease and stroke, causes vision problems and blindness. Men with diabetes are also at risk for lower testosterone levels and sexual impotence, which in turn can lead to increased depression or anxiety.
Mental Health and Depression
Depression in men can go unnoticed because the symptoms don't always match what they expect. Men sometimes experience depression as anger or irritability rather than sadness. They are also more likely to sweep these feelings under the rug.
It is often believed that depression affects women far more than men. In fact, it may be a tendency for men to hide feelings of depression, or to present them differently than women. When it comes to mental health issues like anxiety and depression, men are reluctant to seek help, which significantly increases the risk of suicidal behaviour. Given the stigma associated with mental health problems, especially among men, it is crucial to dispel misconceptions and make therapy more available to those in need.
The most common cause of erectile dysfunction is atherosclerosis, the same condition that causes stroke and heart attack. In fact, having ED usually indicates that blood vessels throughout the body are not in good condition. Erectile dysfunction is considered by doctors to be an early risk symptom of cardiovascular disease. Although erectile dysfunction is not a life-threatening condition, it does indicate a serious health problem.
Erectile dysfunction affects two thirds of men over the age of 70 and up to 39 per cent of men under the age of 40. Men with erectile dysfunction are less happy and more likely to be depressed.
The bad news is that the average man pays less attention to his health than the average woman. The good news is that men can be healthy by taking control of their lifestyle. Whether it's eating better, quitting bad habits like smoking, or getting regular check-ups, here are some steps you can take to prevent common health problems in men of all ages. Whatever health issues you face, you can take control of your well-being by taking preventative and proactive measures today. (Agency)
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The SARS-CoV-2 virus can directly infect a specialised type of kidney cell, explaining why acute kidney injury is one of the main complications observed in patients with severe Covid-19, finds a study.
Primarily known to infect cells in the respiratory tract, physicians were surprised to see that many patients, especially those with severe Covid, were also developing injuries to their kidneys.
"It was shocking to hear doctors describe how patients who were healthy suddenly developed kidney injury and needed to go on dialysis after contracting SARS-CoV-2," said Samira Musah, assistant professor of biomedical engineering and medicine at Duke University.
"It was clear that the virus was doing something to the kidneys, but it was so early in the pandemic that nobody was sure what was going on," she added.
For the new study, described in the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, the team worked worked with a pseudovirus version of SARS-CoV-2 on a previously developed model of podocyte cell, a specific type of kidney cell that helps control the removal of toxins and waste from the blood.
When the pseudovirus was introduced to the podocyte cell model, the team discovered that the spike protein of the virus could directly bind to numerous receptors on the surface of podocytes.
"We found that the virus was especially adept at binding to two key receptors on the surface of the podocytes, and these receptors are abundant in these kidney cells," explained Titilola Kalejaiye, a postdoctoral fellow at Duke.
"There was a strong uptake of the virus initially, and we also found that when you increased the dose of the virus, the uptake would increase even further. The virus seemed to have a strong affinity for these kidney cells."
Further, the team tested their podocyte model with the real SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Just like with the pseudovirus, the team observed that the live version of the virus had a strong affinity for podocytes.
Once the virus infected the cells, it damaged the podocytes, causing their long, finger-like structures, which help filter blood, to retract and shrivel. If the injuries to the cells were too severe, the podocytes would die.
"Beyond the structural damage, we saw that the virus could hijack the machinery of the podocytes to produce additional viral particles that could spread to infect additional cells," said Maria Blasi, Assistant Professor of medicine at Duke.
Now the team hopes to expand their work to study how the different variants of SARS-CoV-2 behave in kidney cells.
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