London- A team of researchers has discovered that the more severely a mother is infected with Covid-19, the more likely she is to experience preterm birth.
The researchers reported that the rate of preterm birth in nearly 1,000 pregnant women, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, was a function of the severity of infection.
"The more severe the SARS-CoV-2 infection, the greater the risk of preterm birth," said researcher Roberto Romero from the Wayne State University School of Medicine in the US.
"There was a dose-dependent relationship between the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the risk of prematurity," Romero added.
For the study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the team included data from 14 National Health Service (NHS) maternity hospitals in the UK to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy.
The excess rate of premature birth, they report, is largely due to medically-induced preterm birth brought about by concerns for health of the mother, such as preeclampsia.
Preterm birth, the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, is defined as one that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation.
Two-thirds of preterm births are due to the spontaneous onset of preterm labour. The remaining third is due to medical conditions that affect either the mother or the unborn baby that necessitate delivery.
The more severe the Covid-19 infection, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy.
The condition is responsible for 76,000 maternal deaths and more than 5,00,000 infant deaths every year.
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London- Researchers have identified an anti-viral gene that impacts the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and severe Covid-19.
A team from the University College London (UCL) estimated that one genetic variant of the OAS1 gene increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease by about 3-6 per cent in the population as a whole, while related variants on the same gene increase the likelihood of severe Covid-19 outcomes.
"While Alzheimer's is primarily characterised by harmful build-up of amyloid protein and tangles in the brain, there is also extensive inflammation in the brain that highlights the importance of the immune system in Alzheimer's. We have found that some of the same immune system changes can occur in both Alzheimer's disease and Covid-19," said lead author Dr Dervis Salih, from UCL's Queen Square Institute of Neurology and UK Dementia Research Institute.
"In patients with severe Covid-19 infection, there can also be inflammatory changes in the brain. Here we have identified a gene that can contribute to an exaggerated immune response to increase risks of both Alzheimer's and Covid-19," Salih added, in the paper published in the journal Brain.
To understand the gene's link to Alzheimer's, the team sequenced genetic data from 2,547 people, half of whom had the brain disorder.
They found that people with a particular variation, called rs1131454, of the OAS1 gene were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease, increasing carriers' baseline risk of Alzheimer's by an estimated 11-22 per cent.
The new variant identified is common, and it has a bigger impact on Alzheimer's risk than several known risk genes, the researchers said.
Further, the researchers investigated four variants on the OAS1 gene, all of which dampen its expression (activity).
They found that the variants increasing the risk of Alzheimer's are linked (inherited together) with OAS1 variants recently found to increase the baseline risk of needing intensive care for Covid-19 by as much as 20 per cent.
That is, the microglia cells where OAS1 gene was expressed more weakly had an exaggerated response to tissue damage, unleashing what they call a 'cytokine storm,' which leads to an autoimmune state where the body attacks itself, the team said.
OAS1 activity changes with age, so further research into the genetic network could help to understand why older people are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's, Covid-19, and other related diseases, they added.
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Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
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London- While people with diabetes are no more likely to contract Covid-19 than others, they are more likely to become severely ill if they do catch it.
Research presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has shown that certain characteristics put some people with diabetes at higher risk of serious illness and death than others.
An analysis of over 1,000 patients by researchers from the NHS Foundation Trust, England, showed that those with Type 2 diabetes were 2.5 times as likely to die within seven days of admission as those with other types of diabetes.
This may be because Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people and can be accompanied by other long-standing health conditions, putting them at higher risk of poorer outcomes, the team explained.
Further, those who had insulin infusions were, half as likely to die as those who didn't need IV insulin, showing that better blood sugar control can improve outcomes in patients with severe Covid and diabetes.
The study included 1,004 patients with an average age of 74.1. About 7.5 per cent were admitted to intensive care and 24 per cent died within seven days of admission to the hospital.
The risk of death was also 2.74 times higher among under-70s with chronic kidney disease than those without.
"According to several studies, patients with diabetic kidney disease have a chronic pro-inflammatory state and immune dysregulation, making it difficult to 'fight off' the virus compared to someone who has a properly working immune system," said Llanera, who has recently moved to Imperial College London.
"In addition, ACE2 receptors are upregulated in the kidneys of patients with diabetic kidney disease. These are molecules that facilitate the entry of SARS-COV-2 into the cells. This may lead to a direct attack of the kidneys by the virus, possibly leading to worse overall outcomes, he noted.
The combination of older age and high CRP (a marker of inflammation) was linked to a more than three-fold (3.44) higher risk of death by Day 7.
The higher CRP correlates with a high degree of inflammation, which can eventually lead to organ failure, the researchers said.
The data has been used to create a model, which, if applied to a patient with similar demographic characteristics, can predict a higher risk of death in seven days using only age and CRP as variables.
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लंदन। कोविड रोग की गंभीरता ग्रैन्यूलोसाइट्स नामक श्वेत रक्त कोशिकाओं की विशेषताओं से प्रभावित होती है, जो जन्मजात प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली का हिस्सा हैं।
स्वीडन में करोलिंस्का इंस्टिट्यूट के एक नए अध्ययन के अनुसार, रक्त में ग्रैन्यूलोसाइट्स और प्रसिद्ध बायोमार्कर के संयुक्त माप से रोग की गंभीरता का अनुमान लगाया जा सकता है।
ग्रैन्यूलोसाइट्स श्वेत रक्त कोशिकाओं का एक परिवार है जिसमें न्यूट्रोफिल, ईोसिनोफिल और बेसोफिल शामिल हैं।
वे तथाकथित जन्मजात प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली का हिस्सा हैं, जो रोगजनकों के खिलाफ शरीर की रक्षा की पहली पंक्ति है।
सॉर्स कोव 2 प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली के विभिन्न घटकों को कैसे प्रभावित करता है, इस पर कई अध्ययन हैं, लेकिन अभी भी कोविड -19 में ग्रैन्यूलोसाइट्स की भूमिका के बारे में जानकारी की कमी है।
करोलिंस्का इंस्टिट्यूट के शोधकतार्ओं ने अब करोलिंस्का विश्वविद्यालय अस्पताल में कोविड -19 के साथ अस्पताल में भर्ती कुल 26 रोगियों में सॉर्स कोव 2 संक्रमण के प्रारंभिक चरण के दौरान रक्त में ग्रैन्यूलोसाइट्स की विशेषताओं की जांच की है।
उन्होंने अस्पताल में छुट्टी के चार महीने बाद अनुवर्ती विश्लेषण भी किया और इनकी तुलना स्वस्थ असंक्रमित व्यक्तियों के विश्लेषण से की।
पीएनएएस पत्रिका में प्रकाशित उनके परिणाम, अंतत: कोविड -19 रोगियों के लिए अधिक अनुरूप उपचार में योगदान दे सकते हैं।
करोलिंस्का इंस्टिट्यूट में मेडिसिन विभाग, हुडिंग में एक शोधकर्ता,प्रमुख लेखक मैग्डा लौर्डा ने कहा कि हमारा अध्ययन कोविड -19 ए रोगियों में सभी ग्रैनुलोसाइट सबसेट की महत्वपूर्ण रूप से परिवर्तित विशेषताओं को दशार्ता है और इसे बीमारी की गंभीरता से जोड़ा जा सकता है।
ग्रैनुलोसाइट विशेषताओं के संयुक्त माप और रक्त में व्यापक रूप से उपयोग किए जाने वाले बायोमार्कर जिन्हें सी-रिएक्टिव प्रोटीन (सीआरपी) और क्रिएटिनिन कहा जाता है, जो श्वसन क्रिया और मल्टीऑर्गन विफलता जैसी प्रमुख नैदानिक विशेषताओं की भविष्यवाणी कर सकते हैं।
लूर्डा कहा कि हमारे अध्ययन दल के सीमित आकार को देखते हुए खोज को सावधानी के साथ देखने की आवश्यकता है, लेकिन हमारी आशा है कि इन संयुक्त मापों का उपयोग रोग की गंभीरता का अनुमान लगाने के लिए किया जा सकता है, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप कोविड -19 रोगियों के लिए अधिक अनुरूप उपचार किया जा सकता है।
यह भी पढ़े► कोविड वैक्स कैंसर रोगियों के लिए सुरक्षित और प्रभावी
London - Covid-19 disease severity seems to be affected by the characteristics of white blood cells called granulocytes, which are part of the innate immune system.
Combined measurements of granulocytes and well-known biomarkers in the blood can predict the severity of the disease, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
Granulocytes are a family of white blood cells that include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
They are part of the so-called innate immune system, which is the body's first line of defence against pathogens.
There are many studies on how SARS-CoV-2 affects various components of the immune system, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the role of granulocytes in Covid-19.
Researchers at the Karolinska Institutet have now investigated the characteristics of granulocytes in the blood during the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a total of 26 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 at the Karolinska University Hospital.
They also performed follow-up analyses four months after hospital discharge and compared these with analyses of healthy uninfected individuals.
Their results, published in the journal PNAS, may eventually contribute to more tailored treatments for Covid-19 patients.
"Our study shows significantly altered characteristics of all granulocyte subsets in Covid-19A patients and this can be linked to the severity of the disease", said lead author Magda Lourda, who is a researcher at the Department of Medicine, Huddinge, at Karolinska Institutet.
Combined measurements of granulocyte characteristics and widely used biomarkers in the blood called C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine, could predict key clinical features such as respiratory function and multiorgan failure.
"The finding needs to be taken with caution considering the limited size of our study cohort, but our hope is that these combined measurements can be used to predict the severity of the disease, resulting in more tailored treatments for Covid-19 patients," Lourda said.
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