Many people believe that heart disease typically affects men. Unfortunately, this is far from the truth. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality not only among men, but also among women. But women are actually at greater risk if not detected early, and this exacerbates the issue.
Signs of poor heart health do not appear as visibly in women as it does in men. What this means is that if a man has a heart issue, there are specific symptoms like angina which can be spotted easily and the right course of action be recommended. The same issue in a woman may not result in a sign or symptom that can be easily spotted. So often, their symptoms go ignored or unrecognised and they do not receive timely intervention to correct the problem. The issue is so acute that today 1 in 3 deaths among women is due to coronary heart disease.
There is also a significant lack of self-awareness among women about risk factors and the prevention of CVDs. Women don't only attend to matters of the home, but they hold positions at leading companies, and continue to rise to the occasion and meet impossible demands on their time. Through all of this, they take care of the emotional needs of their family members and loved ones; and still culturally are predisposed to putting the needs of others before their own. The stress they experience, among other common risk factors, often goes unnoticed by those around them. And stress has a greater influence on CVD risk in women vs men. Along with stress, other factors like diet quantity and quality also have a greater influence on CVD risk in women vs men. Additionally, women are also impacted by female-specific risk factors for CVD like polycystic Ovarian syndrome PCOS, preeclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes.
In such a situation where symptoms of a heart problem do not manifest visibly, it is extremely important for women to be aware of their own risk factors and adopt proactive measures to take care of their heart health. For example, one risk factor, stress has been linked to a greater intake of energy and nutrient-dense foods, mainly sources of sugar and fat, and to poor diet quality. Women can take simple steps like reducing unhealthy fats and products with high content of sugar and salt to improve the quality of their diet. Choose ingredients that are good for the heart, like oatmeal, wholegrains, fiber rich vegetables, blended oils with the right balance of fatty acids, legumes, soy products, and the like. Regular and consistent exercise, adequate sleep, and other such lifestyle modifications can help maintain heart health in the long term.
Furthermore with signs of poor heart health not manifesting visibly in women, it is crucial that they get regular health check-ups done to assess their risk proactively. Self-awareness and early identification of cardiovascular risk factors can lead to better prevention of CVD in women.
This World Heart Day, let's choose self-care. Get a simple heart check-up done and encourage other women in yourselves too, to get the same done. Take proactive steps for heart health today.
(By Brajesh Kunwar)
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London- A team of researchers has discovered that the more severely a mother is infected with Covid-19, the more likely she is to experience preterm birth.
The researchers reported that the rate of preterm birth in nearly 1,000 pregnant women, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, was a function of the severity of infection.
"The more severe the SARS-CoV-2 infection, the greater the risk of preterm birth," said researcher Roberto Romero from the Wayne State University School of Medicine in the US.
"There was a dose-dependent relationship between the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the risk of prematurity," Romero added.
For the study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the team included data from 14 National Health Service (NHS) maternity hospitals in the UK to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy.
The excess rate of premature birth, they report, is largely due to medically-induced preterm birth brought about by concerns for health of the mother, such as preeclampsia.
Preterm birth, the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, is defined as one that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation.
Two-thirds of preterm births are due to the spontaneous onset of preterm labour. The remaining third is due to medical conditions that affect either the mother or the unborn baby that necessitate delivery.
The more severe the Covid-19 infection, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy.
The condition is responsible for 76,000 maternal deaths and more than 5,00,000 infant deaths every year.
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London- Researchers have identified an anti-viral gene that impacts the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and severe Covid-19.
A team from the University College London (UCL) estimated that one genetic variant of the OAS1 gene increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease by about 3-6 per cent in the population as a whole, while related variants on the same gene increase the likelihood of severe Covid-19 outcomes.
"While Alzheimer's is primarily characterised by harmful build-up of amyloid protein and tangles in the brain, there is also extensive inflammation in the brain that highlights the importance of the immune system in Alzheimer's. We have found that some of the same immune system changes can occur in both Alzheimer's disease and Covid-19," said lead author Dr Dervis Salih, from UCL's Queen Square Institute of Neurology and UK Dementia Research Institute.
"In patients with severe Covid-19 infection, there can also be inflammatory changes in the brain. Here we have identified a gene that can contribute to an exaggerated immune response to increase risks of both Alzheimer's and Covid-19," Salih added, in the paper published in the journal Brain.
To understand the gene's link to Alzheimer's, the team sequenced genetic data from 2,547 people, half of whom had the brain disorder.
They found that people with a particular variation, called rs1131454, of the OAS1 gene were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease, increasing carriers' baseline risk of Alzheimer's by an estimated 11-22 per cent.
The new variant identified is common, and it has a bigger impact on Alzheimer's risk than several known risk genes, the researchers said.
Further, the researchers investigated four variants on the OAS1 gene, all of which dampen its expression (activity).
They found that the variants increasing the risk of Alzheimer's are linked (inherited together) with OAS1 variants recently found to increase the baseline risk of needing intensive care for Covid-19 by as much as 20 per cent.
That is, the microglia cells where OAS1 gene was expressed more weakly had an exaggerated response to tissue damage, unleashing what they call a 'cytokine storm,' which leads to an autoimmune state where the body attacks itself, the team said.
OAS1 activity changes with age, so further research into the genetic network could help to understand why older people are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's, Covid-19, and other related diseases, they added.
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Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
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हैदराबाद- विश्व हृदय दिवस पर डॉक्टरों का कहना है कि 50 साल से कम उम्र के करीब 75 फीसदी आबादी को दिल का दौरा पड़ने का खतरा है, ऐसे में दिल की जटिलताएं एक बड़ी बीमारी है, जिसे नजरअंदाज नहीं किया जा सकता है। देश भर में चिकित्सा पेशेवरों द्वारा किए गए अध्ययनों से संकेत मिलता है कि 40 वर्ष से कम आयु के कम से कम 25 प्रतिशत भारतीयों को दिल का दौरा पड़ने या दिल से संबंधित किसी अन्य गंभीर जटिलता से पीड़ित होने का खतरा है; और यह जोखिम 40 से 50 वर्ष की आयु के बीच 50 प्रतिशत आबादी तक बढ़ सकता है।
डॉक्टरों का मनाना है कि भारतीय युवाओं और मध्यम आयु वर्ग की आबादी के बीच स्वस्थ भोजन और सक्रिय जीवन को प्रोत्साहित करना चाहिए। यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए कदम उठाए जाने चाहिए कि अपेक्षाकृत युवा आबादी में दिल के दौरे के मामलों में वृद्धि को तत्काल नियंत्रित किया जाए। तनाव के स्तर में वृद्धि और अनुचित जीवनशैली दिल से संबंधित बीमारियों के बढ़ने के दो प्रमुख कारण हैं।
चीफ इंटरवेंशनल कार्डियोलॉजिस्ट,ग्लेनीगल्स ग्लोबल हॉस्पिटल के एम साई सुधाकर ने कहा,कई सामाजिक मानकों पर भारत की रेटिंग खराब है, और यह हर गुजरते साल के साथ अधिक से अधिक लोगों को तनावपूर्ण स्थितियों में और अधिक गहराई तक धकेलने का एक प्रमुख कारण है। व्यक्तिगत मुद्दों के साथ ये सामाजिक समस्याएं मानसिक तनाव से पीड़ित लोगों के लिए प्रमुख कारण हैं। उनके दिल पर सीधा प्रभाव पड़ता है। जबकि अधिक पुरुषों को इस समस्या का शिकार माना जाता है।
सीनियर इंटरवेंशनल कार्डियोलॉजिस्ट, एसएलजी हॉस्पिटल्स के वी.हरिराम ने बताया कि भारतीय ट्रांस फैट के अभ्यस्त उपभोक्ता हैं, और यह खराब जीवनशैली, अनियमित कामकाजी समय, शराब, धूम्रपान तंबाकू के साथ-साथ हृदय रोग का खतरा बढ़ाता है और ऐसे व्यक्ति अत्यधिक कमजोर होते है।
अचानक दिल के दौरे के मामलों की संख्या में काफी वृद्धि हुई है। जो हार्मोनल असंतुलन के कारण हो सकता है। मधुमेह, उच्च रक्तचाप और हृदय रोग वाले लोग इसकी चपेट में आ सकते हैं। यह महत्वपूर्ण है कि लोग संभावित हृदय समस्या के किसी भी प्रारंभिक चेतावनी संकेतों को अनदेखा न करें और समय पर चिकित्सा की सलाह ले।
राजीव गर्ग, सीनियर कंसल्टेंट इंटरवेंशनल कार्डियोलॉजिस्ट, अवेयर ग्लेनीगल्स ग्लोबल हॉस्पिटल का मानना है कि कुछ सरल लेकिन अत्यधिक प्रभावी कदम संभवत: युवा भारतीयों में दिल के दौरे के जोखिम को कम कर सकते हैं। भोजन की आदतों में नियमित रूप और संयम सबसे सरल लेकिन शक्तिशाली आदतें हैं, जिन्हें लोग अपने दिल के जोखिम को कम करने के लिए कर सकते हैं। प्रत्येक व्यक्ति का शरीर अलग होता है और तनाव को कम करने की एक अलग क्षमता होती है लेकिन उचित जीवन शैली को बनाए रखना और शारीरिक रूप से सक्रिय रहना है। इस जोखिम को कम करने के लिए सबसे अच्छा हो सकता है।
डॉक्टर ने सलाह दी हैं कि लोगों को शुरूआती चेतावनी के संकेतों जैसे सांस फूलना, सीने में दर्द, अत्यधिक पसीना, चक्कर आना आदि को नजरअंदाज नहीं करना चाहिए और समय पर चिकित्सा शुरू कर देना चाहिए। यह भी महत्वपूर्ण है कि मोटे व्यक्ति और पहले से मौजूद स्वास्थ्य जटिलताओं वाले लोग धूम्रपान छोड़ दें और शराब का सेवन बंद कर दें (यदि उनमें ये दोनों आदतें हैं)। यह भी कहा कि 30 वर्ष से कम आयु के युवा, जिनका हृदय रोगों का पारिवारिक चलता आ रहा है,उनको नियमित रूप से चिकित्सा जांच करवाना चाहिए हैं।
यह भी पढ़े► मधुमेह वाले कुछ लोगों के लिए कोविड क्यों अधिक घातक?
London- While people with diabetes are no more likely to contract Covid-19 than others, they are more likely to become severely ill if they do catch it.
Research presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has shown that certain characteristics put some people with diabetes at higher risk of serious illness and death than others.
An analysis of over 1,000 patients by researchers from the NHS Foundation Trust, England, showed that those with Type 2 diabetes were 2.5 times as likely to die within seven days of admission as those with other types of diabetes.
This may be because Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people and can be accompanied by other long-standing health conditions, putting them at higher risk of poorer outcomes, the team explained.
Further, those who had insulin infusions were, half as likely to die as those who didn't need IV insulin, showing that better blood sugar control can improve outcomes in patients with severe Covid and diabetes.
The study included 1,004 patients with an average age of 74.1. About 7.5 per cent were admitted to intensive care and 24 per cent died within seven days of admission to the hospital.
The risk of death was also 2.74 times higher among under-70s with chronic kidney disease than those without.
"According to several studies, patients with diabetic kidney disease have a chronic pro-inflammatory state and immune dysregulation, making it difficult to 'fight off' the virus compared to someone who has a properly working immune system," said Llanera, who has recently moved to Imperial College London.
"In addition, ACE2 receptors are upregulated in the kidneys of patients with diabetic kidney disease. These are molecules that facilitate the entry of SARS-COV-2 into the cells. This may lead to a direct attack of the kidneys by the virus, possibly leading to worse overall outcomes, he noted.
The combination of older age and high CRP (a marker of inflammation) was linked to a more than three-fold (3.44) higher risk of death by Day 7.
The higher CRP correlates with a high degree of inflammation, which can eventually lead to organ failure, the researchers said.
The data has been used to create a model, which, if applied to a patient with similar demographic characteristics, can predict a higher risk of death in seven days using only age and CRP as variables.
Read More► Risk of Stroke Increases With Insulin Resistance: Study