COPD or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease makes it difficult to breathe due to long-term damage that weakens or collapses the air sacs between the lungs. COPD occurs when long-term damage to the lungs makes it difficult to breathe since the walls between the air sacs of the lungs become weak and may collapse. It is most common among adults who are current or former cigarette smokers.
"Usually, when a child has difficulty breathing, a chronic cough or wheezing, it is due to Asthma, a chronic lung infection or a congenital hereditary disease affecting lungs by the production of thick mucus which blocks the airways. This also exposes the lungs to chronic infection and further lung damage. Such symptoms may also be due to exposure to cigarette smoke (secondary smoke), air pollution, or other irritants. Research has proven that children with asthma or other lung problems have a greater chance of developing COPD in adult life," says Dr. Praveen Khilnani, Clinical Director and Senior Consultant, Paediatrics, Paediatric Pulmonology, and Critical Care, Madhukar Rainbow Children's Hospital.
Also, Read► A new study links COPD, smoking to higher COVID-19 mortality
COPD can be categorized in the following stages:-
Very Severe Stage
Some indicative signs of the disease are:
Short breath while doing physical activities
Chronic cough which can be clear, white, yellow, or greenish
Frequent respiratory infections
Lack of energy
Sudden weight loss (in later stages)
Also, Read► Current smokers, people with COPD
Prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD diagnosis in parents and offspring with Intergenerational associations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been well recognized. This may result from genetic, gene-environment, or exposure to lifestyle factors. Studies have shown that parents who have a preterm birth, children with low birth weight, parents exposed to tobacco exposure in the uterine, children with respiratory diseases, primarily asthma and pneumonia, in children can give way to lung problems in later childhood.
Children exposed to smoke around them also have a negative impact on the lungs, which can develop as COPD in adulthood. Most children develop asthma symptoms before 5 years. Asthma can be difficult to diagnose in toddlers. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between asthma or another childhood condition as the symptoms in both cases are very similar.
Also, Read► Non-smokers with COPD at higher risk of lung cancer: Study
Signs of Allergies
A child who has frequent bouts of cold wheezes respiratory infections can have asthma if the parent is asthmatic. Signs of allergies are spotted in the child has signs of allergies which can be eczema the child wheezes almost all the time.
"Children with asthma should carry inhalers with them. Parents and schools should ensure clean air for children. Schools and homes should have clean and healthy air. Parents should also be cautious of not smoking during pregnancy", suggests Dr. Khilnani.
COPD Ayurvedic Treatment
COPD can be diagnosed with Lung function tests and CT scans. COPD incidence is found to be the highest among children with both asthma and pneumonia in childhood. Care should be taken to treat these diseases in children. In most cases, asthma in children is cured in adults.
However, children who have weak lungs develop COPD in later adult lives. Study shows that 11 percent of children with severe asthma had COPD as young adults, and three out of four children with persistent asthma have low lung function by their early 20s. Usually, boys with asthma have a higher incidence of low lung function capability than girls.
"If a child has severe asthma, doctors recommend a spirometry test to be taken annually. It checks how much air you can breathe in and out, and how fast you can exhale air from your lungs. COPD can't be cured, but timely care can help keep your lungs working well for as long as possible. Smoking plays a very active role in developing COPD, so active smoking as well as passive smoking should be avoided for such patients. Being alert about the symptoms of COPD also helps a lot to treat this at an early stage", says Dr. Khilnani. (Agency)
Read More► What is The Best Treatment for COPD
If you have been coughing for a long time and have trouble breathing? So you should not ignore this problem. It can be a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is a group of diseases in which the patient has difficulty breathing. In this, the patient has a persistent cough, such as a smoker. So, here you will know the symptoms, causes & risk factors, stage, prevention, and treatment of COPD. You will get to know some Ayurvedic remedies that will help to deal with COPD.
What is Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of lung-related diseases. This disease blocks the breath and makes it difficult to breathe. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common situations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of your bronchial tubes, these bronchial tubes carry air to your lungs. Emphysema occurs when the sac (bronchial) formed by the smallest air fraction of the lungs is slowly destroyed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cannot relieve damage to your lungs, but its treatment helps control symptoms and reduce further damage.
Symptoms of COPD
Breathing becomes difficult when there is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But this problem develops slowly over many years and in this, you do not understand how long you have been with this disease. Most people with COPD do not know the common symptoms of this problem until they reach 40 to 50 years of age.
Common symptoms of COPD include: -
• Breathing fast can happen while exercising, and sometimes even if you wake up suddenly at night, you may feel difficulty in breathing
• Constant cough with mucus, which is not easily cured
• Having a chest infection
• Constant sore throat
• chest tightness
• In this, every day you need to clean the mucus from the lungs
• A persistent cold, flu, or other respiratory infections
COPD Causes & Risk Factors
• In most of the cases, due to increased COPD due to cigarette smoking, the lungs get worse.
• Among other reasons, there is a risk of houses not being ventilated and the smoke generated by cooking and burning anything.
• Due to genetic reasons.
How do your lungs get affected by this problem?
Air travels through your breathing tube and two large tubes to the lungs. The bronchiole tubes inside your lungs are divided into smaller branches at times like the branches of a tree. At the other end of which there is a group of small airbags called alveoli.
These airbags have very thin walls, which are filled with many small blood vessels (capillaries).
In the case of COPD, it is difficult to know the flow of air from the airways inside the body and come out. Which can be due to the following reasons: -
• When this happens, these airways and airbags lose their elasticity. Because of this, when you exhale, some part of the air gets trapped in your lungs.
• The walls between the airbags are destroyed.
• Airway walls thick and dry.
• Excessive phlegm in the airways and blockage of airways.
Airway obstructions also include these reasons: -
Lung disease is a condition caused by the fragile walls of small airbags in the lungs and the loss of flexibility of small airbags (alveoli). In this, the air is destroyed while coming out of the lungs.
In this condition, there is inflammation in your bronchial tube and it shrinks. This causes more mucus to form in your lungs, which may later block your narrowed tubes. During this, your chronic cough may also increase while trying to clear the airways.
When does the risk of COPD increase?
• Excess tobacco and smoking. The most important risk factors for COPD include prolonged cigarette smoking or bidi smoking. Apart from this, a large number of people smoke cigarettes and bidis around the zine, they are also at greater risk of getting this problem from exposure to this smoke.
• Smokers are at a higher risk of this problem even when they have asthma. The conjunction of asthma and smoking enhances the risk of COPD.
• Exposure to dust and chemicals. Exposure to chemical fumes and dust in the workplace for many days can increase your lung irritation and many other troubles.
• Exposure to smoke resulting from the burning of any kind of fuel. Non-ventilation of homes and exposure to smoke emitted during cooking in the home also poses a risk of COPD.
• COPD evolves moderately over many years, so most people show symptoms only after at least 40 years.
How Many Types of COPD
3 types of COPD:
Refractory Asthma: This type may also be called nonreversible. It doesn't respond to common asthma prescriptions.
Chronic Bronchitis: While you have shortness of breath, coughing, and mucus that lingers at least 3 months for 2 years in a row.
Emphysema: Damage to air sacs in your lungs leaves you short of breath.
Stages of COPD
The stages of COPD are:
• Mild- Your airflow is moderately limited, but you don’t notice it much. You cough and have excretion every once in a while.
• Moderate- Your airflow is worse. You’re often low in breath after doing something active. This is the point where most people notice symptoms and get help.
• Severe- Your airflow and conciseness of breath are more critical. You can't do normal exercise anymore. Your symptoms flare up repeatedly, also called an exacerbation.
• Very severe- Your airflow is limited, your flares are more frequent and intense, and your quality of life is poor.
Prevention of COPD
• Avoid air pollution.
• Avoid risks in the working space. Protect yourself as much as possible from exposure to chemical fumes and dust in the workplace.
• A healthy lifestyle habit helps to keep your lungs healthy.
• Do not smoke The obvious cause of COPD is an obstruction in the pathway of breathing. Most of the cases are caused by smoking cigarettes or bidis, so if you want to stop COPD, stop smoking immediately.
• If someone is smoking near you, then get away from it, its smoke can also be dangerous for you.
COPD: Home Remedies, Treatment, and Diet
Diet to Eat
• Low-fat protein-rich diets like meat thin pieces, poultry, and fish.
• Whole-grain foods such as whole-grain bread, bran, brown rice, and oats. These foods are rich in fiber, which helps in improving the functioning of the digestive system.
• Fresh fruits and vegetables contain essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which help to keep your body healthy.
• Foods that have high potassium levels include oranges, tomatoes, asparagus, and potatoes.
Avoid These Things
• Apples, avocados, melons and melons, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, corn, peas, peppers, soybeans, and pulses produce flatulence and gas, which causes respiratory problems in people with COPD.
• Dairy products like milk and cheese, chocolates, fried foods.
• Caffeine-rich drinks such as coffee, tea, soda.
Yoga and Exercise
• Walking is one of the best ways to exercise.
• Stretching- Stretching gives you relaxation and increases your flexibility. It is also good for warm-up before starting exercise and later for peace and relaxation.
• Aerobic exercise- Aerobic exercise increases the smoothness of the heart and related systems, and makes your body more efficient to use oxygen. Swimming, walking, climbing stairs, and dancing are all good aerobic exercises.
• Resistive training- Exercising with light weights is the proper way to increase strength and stamina.
Pranayama's breathing techniques help you control the symptoms of breathlessness by strengthening the respiratory system. The following Yogasanas help individuals with COPD by strengthening and increasing their flexibility:
• Standing and bending back.
• Sitting and leaning towards the front.
• Standing and leaning left and right.
• Do not take things that stimulate your lungs such as smoke and air pollution.
• Exercise regularly to stay as strong as possible.
• Take a proper diet to maintain your strength.
Q. Can people with COPD get better?
Ans. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder makes it frequently challenging for a person to breathe. It is not currently possible to treat or modify the situation completely, but a person can decrease its effect by making some cure and lifestyle changes.
Q. What does a COPD attack feel like?
Ans. Symptoms of a COPD flare are shortness or breathlessness of breath. Either feeling like you can't breathe deeply or gasping for air. Enhances in coughing attacks.
Q. What is the 6-minute walk test for COPD?
Ans. During this test, you walk at your normal pace for six minutes. This test can be used to monitor your response to cure for lung, heart, and other health issues. This test is normally used for people with pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung disease, pre-lung transplant evaluation, or COPD.
Q. What color is phlegm with COPD?
Ans. The color of the mucus in people with COPD can be a crucial sign. Most of the time mucus is clear or gray-colored, although some people with chronic bronchitis will have a chronic cough with pale yellow mucus.
Q. Is walking good for COPD?
Ans. Walking is a safe and efficient form of exercise for nearly everyone, including people living with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
London, May 12 (IANS) Current smokers and people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of severe complications and higher mortality with COVID-19 infection, warn researchers.COPD is a common, persistent dysfunction of the lung associated with a limitation in airflow. An estimated 251 million people worldwide are affected by COPD.Given the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus on respiratory function, the study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, sought to understand the prevalence and the effects of COPD in COVID-19 patients."Despite the low prevalence of COPD and smoking in COVID-19 cases, COPD and current smokers were associated with greater COVID-19 severity and mortality," said study researchers from University College London in the UK.For the results, the research systematically searched databases of scientific literature to find existing publications on the epidemiological, clinical characteristics and features of COVID-19 and the prevalence of COPD in COVID-19 patients.According to the team, 123 potentially relevant papers were narrowed to 15 that met all quality and inclusion guidelines.The included studies had a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. 58 (2.3 per cent) of those patients also had COPD while 221 (9 per cent) were smokers.The findings showed that critically ill COVID-19 patients with COPD had a 63 per cent risk of severe disease and a 60 per cent risk of mortality while critically ill patients without COPD had only a 33.4 per cent risk of severe disease and 55 per cent risk of mortality.In addition, current smokers were 1.45 times more likely to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers.However, the study was not able to examine whether there was an association between the frequency of COPD exacerbations, or severity of COPD, with COVID-19 outcomes or complications.The results are limited by the fact that few studies were available to review, as well as the diverse locations, settings, and designs of the included studies, the researchers said.Last month, a study published in the journal American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, suggested that there is an increased risk for the virus binding and gaining entry into the lungs of smokers than non-smokersAnother study, published in European Respiratory Journal claimed that COPD and people who currently smoke have a higher level of an enzyme called 'angiotensin-converting enzyme II' (ACE-2), which is the entry point for coronavirus in lungs.--IANSbu/na
London - In probably the first study to link smoking with severe COVID-19 risk, a team of researchers now claim that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who currently smoke have higher level of an enzyme that is the ‘entry point for new coronavirus in lungs.
Previous research shows that the molecule, called angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE-2) which sits on the surface of lung cells, is the 'entry point' that allows coronavirus to get into the cells of the lungs and cause an infection.
The new study, published in the European Respiratory Journal, showed that levels of ACE-2 in former smokers are lower than in current smokers.
"The data emerging from China suggested that patients with COPD were at higher risk of having worse outcomes from COVID-19. We hypothesised that this could be because the levels of ACE-2 in their airways might be increased compared to people without COPD, which could possibly make it easier for the virus to infect the airway," explained lead researcher Dr Janice Leung from the University of British Columbia and St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
The team studied samples taken from the lungs of 21 COPD patients and 21 people who did not have COPD.
They tested the samples to gauge the level of ACE-2 and compared this with other factors, such whether they were from people who never smoked, were current smokers or former smokers. Not only did they find higher levels of ACE-2 in COPD patients, they also found higher levels in people who were smokers.
The researchers then checked their new findings against two existing study groups, which together contain data on a further 249 people - some non-smokers, some current smokers and some former smokers.
Again, they found levels of ACE-2 were higher in current smokers but lower in non-smokers and in those who were former smokers.
"We found that patients with COPD and people who are still smoking have higher levels of ACE-2 in their airways, which might put them at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections," said Dr Leung.
Patients with COPD should be counselled to strictly abide by social distancing and proper hand hygiene to prevent infection.
"We also found that former smokers had similar levels of ACE-2 to people who had never smoked. This suggests that there has never been a better time to quit smoking to protect yourself from COVID-19," the authors wrote.
Professor Tobias Welte, an infections expert from the European Respiratory Society and is a coordinator for the national German COVID-19 task force, said that the study gives some interesting insight into why some people may be at risk of more severe COVID-19 symptoms than others.
"What it does not tell us is whether it's possible to manipulate ACE-2 levels to improve survival in patients infected with COVID-19 or whether this would make a difference in COPD patients who contract the infection," explained Welte. --IANS
Seoul- Researchers have found that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is linked to a heightened risk of lung cancer in people who have never smoked.
The findings from Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea, published in the journal Thorax, indicate that the risk is on a par with that of smokers without chronic lung disease.
COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory conditions that narrow the airways, such as bronchitis and emphysema. Smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, which itself is associated with a heightened risk of developing lung cancer.
According to the researchers, but up to 39 per cent of people who develop COPD have never smoked, and it's not clear what their risk of lung cancer is, because most of the studies looking at this have included too few participants.
For the findings, the researchers included 338,548 Korean men (146,996) and women (191,552) between the ages of 40 and 84, with no history of lung cancer, who had had at least one health check provided by National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) between 2002 and 2013.
Their health was tracked for an average of seven years, based on inpatient and outpatient treatment and prescriptions issued.During this monitoring period, 1834 participants developed lung cancer. In 290 cases, the person had COPD, but in 1544 cases, the person didn't.
Among current and former smokers, those without COPD were around twice as likely to develop lung cancer while those with COPD were six times as likely to do so, compared with people who had never smoked and didn't have COPD.But after taking account of potentially influential factors, among those who had never smoked, people with COPD were more than 2.5 times as likely to develop lung cancer as those without COPD, the data analysis showed.
What's more, the risk of lung cancer in those with COPD, but who had never smoked, was on a par with that of smokers without COPD, the study said."Given that poor lung function in COPD is often a barrier to optimal lung cancer treatment due to increased risk of treatment-related morbidities, our study suggests that early detection of lung cancer in COPD patients may reduce the risk of treatment complications," the researchers said.
The researchers suggest their findings indicate that COPD is a strong independent risk factor for lung cancer.
"Future studies should evaluate whether COPD patients are candidates for lung cancer screening, irrespective of smoking status," they concluded. --IANS