इंडियन काउंसिल ऑफ मेडिकल रिसर्च (आईसीएमआर) द्वारा तैयार की गई एक रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि 2012-19 के बीच कैंसर के कुल मामलों में से 7.9 फीसदी 14 साल से कम उम्र के बच्चों में पाए गए। 'क्लिनिकोपैथोलॉजिकल प्रोफाइल ऑफ कैंसर्स इन इंडिया : ए रिपोर्ट ऑफ हॉस्पिटल-बेस्ड कैंसर रजिस्ट्रीज, 2021', नेशनल कैंसर रजिस्ट्री प्रोग्राम (एनसीआरपी) के तहत 96 अस्पताल-आधारित कैंसर रजिस्ट्रियों की अवधि के दौरान एकत्र किए गए डेटा को समेकित करता है। डेटा देशभर में इन केंद्रों को रिपोर्ट किए गए पुष्टिकृत विकृतियों के सभी निदान और इलाज के मामलों से संबंधित हैं।
देश में 2012-19 के दौरान कैंसर के 13,32,207 मामले दर्ज किए गए। इनमें से 6,10,084 को डेटा की पूर्णता और गुणवत्ता के आधार पर विश्लेषण के लिए शामिल किया गया था।
बचपन के कैंसर वैश्विक स्तर पर बचपन की बीमारियों के प्रमुख कारण के रूप में नौवें स्थान पर हैं, विकलांगता समायोजित जीवन वर्ष (डीएएलवाई) के 11.5 मिलियन के लिए जिम्मेदार है।
भारत में, एनसीआरपी की एक हालिया रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, सभी आयु समूहों में कैंसर के सापेक्ष बचपन के कैंसर (0-19 वर्ष) का अनुपात 1 से 4.9 प्रतिशत के बीच पाया गया।
दिल्ली में लड़कों में 203.1 प्रति मिलियन और लड़कियों में 125.4 प्रति मिलियन की उच्चतम आयु-समायोजित घटना दर (एएआर) दर्ज की। ल्यूकेमिया 0-14 वर्ष आयु वर्ग में दोनों लिंगों में सभी बचपन के कैंसर के लगभग आधे के लिए जिम्मेदार है (लड़कों में 46.4 प्रतिशत और लड़कियों में 44.3 प्रतिशत)। लड़कों में अन्य सामान्य बचपन का कैंसर लिम्फोमा (16.4 प्रतिशत) था, जबकि लड़कियों में यह घातक अस्थि ट्यूमर (8.9 प्रतिशत) था।
बचपन के कैंसर दो आयु समूहों के लिए प्रस्तुत किए जाते हैं : 0-14 वर्ष और 0-19 वर्ष राष्ट्रीय और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय तुलना को सक्षम करने के लिए और बचपन के कैंसर के अंतर्राष्ट्रीय वर्गीकरण के अनुसार वर्गीकृत किया जाता है।
रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि बचपन के कैंसर के अलावा, तंबाकू के उपयोग से जुड़े कैंसर में पुरुषों में 48.7 प्रतिशत और महिलाओं में 16.5 प्रतिशत कैंसर शामिल हैं।
थायरॉइड कैंसर (महिलाओं में 2.5 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 1 प्रतिशत) और पित्ताशय के कैंसर (महिलाओं में 3.7 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 2.2 प्रतिशत) को छोड़कर, साइट-विशिष्ट कैंसर का सापेक्ष अनुपात महिलाओं की तुलना में पुरुषों में अधिक था।
सभी कैंसरों में दूर के मेटास्टेसिस का उच्चतम अनुपात फेफड़ों के कैंसर (49.2 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 55.5 प्रतिशत महिलाओं) के रोगियों में देखा गया, इसके बाद पित्ताशय का कैंसर (40.9 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 45.7 प्रतिशत महिलाएं) और प्रोस्टेट कैंसर (42.9 प्रतिशत) का स्थान है।
रिपोर्ट ने सुझाव दिया कि कई कैंसर के लिए कीमोथेरेपी अभी भी सबसे विशिष्ट उपचार पद्धति थी, भले ही प्रस्तुति में रोग की नैदानिक सीमा कुछ भी हो, जिसमें यकृत, पित्ताशय, पेट, फेफड़े और बचपन के कैंसर शामिल हैं।
यह भी पढ़े► कैंसर और हार्ट अटैक से ज्यादा खतरनाक हो जाएगा सेप्सिस: शोध
New York, Aug 12 (IANS) Risk of Covid-19 may shift from older adults to younger children as the SARS-CoV-2 virus becomes endemic, according to new research.Once endemic in the global population, Covid-19 may behave like other common cold coronaviruses, affecting mostly young children who have not yet been vaccinated or exposed to the virus."Following infection by SARS-CoV-2, there has been a clear signature of increasingly severe outcomes and fatality with age," Ottar Bjornstad, of the Department of Biology at the Pennsylvania State University, said."Yet, our modeling results suggest that the risk of infection will likely shift to younger children as the adult community becomes immune either through vaccination or exposure to the virus," he said.Bjornstad explained that such shifts have been observed in other coronaviruses and influenza viruses as they have emerged and then become endemic. Historical records of respiratory diseases indicate that age-incidence patterns during virgin epidemics can be very different from endemic circulation."For example, ongoing genomic work suggests that the 1889-1890 pandemic, sometimes known as the Asiatic or Russian flu -- which killed one million people, primarily adults over age 70 -- may have been caused by the emergence of HCoV-OC43 virus, which is now an endemic, mild, repeat-infecting cold virus affecting mostly children ages 7-12 months old," Bjornstad noted.For the study, appearing in the journal Science Advances, the team developed what is known as a "realistic age-structured (RAS) mathematical model". They examined disease burden over immediate, medium and long terms -- 1, 10 and 20 years, respectively as well as for 11 different countries -- including China, Japan, South Korea, Spain, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, the US, Brazil and South Africa -- that differed widely in their demographics.Interestingly, due to variations in demographics, the model predicts different outcomes for different countries."Given the marked increase of the infection-fatality ratio with age, countries with older population structures would be expected to have a larger fraction of deaths than those with relatively younger population structures," said Nils Chr. Stenseth, Professor of ecology and evolution, University of Oslo."Consistent with this, for example, South Africa -- likely due, in part, to its younger population structure -- has a lower number of deaths compared to older populations such as Italy. We found that such 'death disparities' are heavily influenced by demographics. However, regardless of demographics, we predict a consistent shift of the risk to the young," he added.--IANSrvt/vd
New Delhi, May 28 (IANS) Strong regulations to cap salt, sugar and other harmful ingredients and simple to understand front of package labelling (FOPL) on junk food packets can help curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity in India, say public health experts and doctors, in a webinar organised by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Rishikesh on Friday.Warning labels are critical to help consumers and parents understand how much empty calories and harmful nutrients are being consumed by children."Food labels should provide clear guidance... Simple to understand labels with evidence based nutrition cut-off is a need of the hour and will go a long way to address the crisis of childhood obesity in the country," said Umesh Kapil, Professor, Clinical Epidemiology, Indian Institute of Biliary Sciences.The experts also urged that India must rapidly adopt the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits and also introduce simple, smart and interpretative FOPL."There is enough scientific evidence and a globally agreed WHO SEARO framework for evidence-based cut-offs for anti-nutrients like sugar, salt and saturated fat present in packaged food," Kapil added.WHO has identified FOPL as "one of the policy tools that can support healthy diets, both in stimulating consumers to make informed healthier food choices and in driving manufacturers to reformulate products to avoid making unfavourable nutrient content disclosure."With more than 14.4 million obese children, India has the second highest number of children with childhood obesity in the world. By 2025 this number is expected to reach a staggering 17 million. As is the trajectory in other developing nations, the proportion of packaged and ultra-processed foods is on the rise.There is growing evidence that the Covid-19 pandemic could potentially increase the risk of children becoming obese. School closures and lockdowns have already deprived millions of children of nutritional school meals, sports and adequate physical exercise."Being overweight or obese is directly associated with life-threatening noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Obesity is a result of imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended," said Rekha Harish, Chairperson, Indian Academy of Paediatrics, NCD Prevention.The only way to control this growing epidemic of obesity is by establishing scientific cut-off limits for harmful ingredients and FOPL on packaged products, the experts suggested."Children are particularly at risk. As doctors, we want to assert that the onus should not be on children or their families alone to prevent or fight this condition. It is the collective duty of policymakers, the food industry and us as doctors to safeguard children and enable a nutritious food system for them," said Manoj Kumar Gupta, Dean, AIIMS Rishikesh.--IANSrvt/sdr/
New York, April 9 (IANS) Exercise and a healthy diet in childhood leads to adults with bigger brains and lower levels of anxiety, a new study suggests.
The mouse-model study determined that early-life exercise generally reduced anxious behaviors in adults. It also led to an increase in adult muscle and brain mass.
"During the Covid-19 lockdowns, particularly in the early months, kids got very little exercise. For many without access to a park or a backyard, school was their only source of physical activity," said researcher Marcell Cadney from the University of California - Riverside.
"It is important we find solutions for these kids, possibly including extra attention as they grow into adults," Cadney added.
The researchers determined that early-life exercise generally reduced anxious behaviours in adults. It also led to an increase in adult muscle and brain mass. When fed "Western" style diets high in fat and sugar, the mice not only became fatter, but also grew into adults that preferred unhealthy foods.
For the study, published in the journal Physiology and Behavior, the researchers divided the young mice into four groups -- those with access to exercise, those without access, those fed a standard, healthy diet and those who ate a Western diet.
Mice started on their diets immediately after weaning and continued on them for three weeks, until they reached sexual maturity.
After an additional eight weeks of "washout," during which all mice were housed without wheels and on the healthy diet, the researchers did behavioural analysis, measured aerobic capacity, and levels of several different hormones.
One of those they measured, leptin, is produced by fat cells. It helps control body weight by increasing energy expenditure and signaling that less food is required.
Early-life exercise increased adult leptin levels as well as fat mass in adult mice, regardless of the diet they ate.
Toronto, March 20 (IANS) Roughly three in every five Canadian adults aged 45 to 85 have been exposed to childhood abuse, neglect, intimate partner violence or other household adversity, say researchers, including an Indian-origin.The research, published in CMAJ Open, showed that more than one in four adults reported exposure to physical abuse, and one in five reported exposure to intimate partner violence and emotional abuse in childhood."Our research showed that adverse childhood experiences are highly prevalent in the Canadian population, with 62 per cent of Canadian adults aged 45 to 85 reporting at least one exposure," said lead author Divya Joshi from the McMaster University.For the study, the team used data collected from nearly 45,000 participants enrolled in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), a large, national population-based study of health and aging.AThe participants completed questionnaires about adverse childhood experiences through telephone and face-to-face interviews between 2015 and 2018.Childhood exposure to physical abuse, intimate partner violence and emotional abuse were the most prevalent types of adverse childhood experiences reported across all participants.The researchers also found that reporting of adverse childhood events varied by demographic factors, such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, education and sexual orientation.People younger than 65 years, women, those with less education, lower annual household income, and those of non-heterosexual orientation reported greater exposure.A"We found that adverse childhood experiences were highly prevalent across all demographic groups, although some groups experienced an unequal or greater burden," Joshi said.--IANSvc/sdr/
London, Feb 22 (IANS) Pregnant women need to have overall healthy diet, high in fruit and vegetables and low in refined carbohydrates and red and processed meats, said a new study which found links between mother's low quality diet and higher risk of obesity and excess body fat in children, especially during late-childhood.
The research showed that children of mothers who ate a higher quality diet, low in inflammation-associated foods, during pregnancy had a lower risk of obesity and lower body fat levels in late-childhood than children whose mothers ate a lower quality diet, high in inflammation-associated foods, while pregnant.
This association was not observed in early or mid-childhood, according to the study published the journal BMC Medicine.
"Obesity in childhood often carries on into adulthood and is associated with a higher risk of chronic diseases, including Type-2 diabetes," said corresponding author of the study Ling-Wei Chen from University College Dublin, Ireland.
Mounting evidence suggest that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes and points to the first one thousand days of a child's life, from conception to two years old, as a critical period for preventing childhood obesity.
To examine the effects of maternal diet on the likelihood of childhood obesity and excess body fat, the authors analysed data collected from 16,295 mother-child pairs in seven European birth cohort studies, from Ireland, France, the UK, the Netherlands and Poland.
On average, mothers were 30 years old and had a healthy body mass index (BMI).
The researchers found that children born to mothers who ate diets high in foods associated with inflammation throughout pregnancy tended to have lower levels of fat-free body mass, indicating lower levels of muscle mass, in late-childhood than those whose mothers ate diets low in inflammation-associated foods.
Previous research has found that low levels of muscle mass may be associated with a higher risk of combined diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity
An association between a lower quality maternal diet, high in inflammation-associated foods, and lower levels of fat-free body mass in late-childhood was found to be stronger in boys than in girls, said the study.