By making changes in lifestyle, kidney diseases cannot only be prevented but also controlled in their early stages, said experts.
Himanshu Verma, Head of the Department of Nephrology at Delhi's Safdarjung Hospital, said in his presentation that the process from kidney disease to kidney failure happens in five stages.
"But it is possible to completely overcome the disease in the first and second stages. For this, first of all, it is necessary to have awareness among the patients so that the disease can be identified in the initial stage itself."
According to him, keeping the body mass index (BMI) between 20-25, walking 30 minutes a day and at least five days a week, changing lifestyle, and reducing the consumption of pain-relieving medicines, among other precautions, are effective in controlling the disease in the initial stage.
Patients with diabetes and high blood pressure would be at the highest risk of kidney disease. "This risk can be much higher for people over 60 years of age with any of these diseases."
The experts also talked about alternative treatment methods of ayurveda like Neeri KFT, a traditional ayurvedic polyherbal formulation that has been found to be effective in regulating functions of at least six genes variants causing kidney dysfunction.
In concluding remarks, Sanchit Sharma, Executive Director, of AIMIL Pharma, said the nine-day-long program experts discussed extensively how to avoid kidney diseases and how to manage them.
"This discussion shows that no standards can be fixed to prevent the disease but a dynamic approach needs to be adopted," he said.
Studies have warned that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in India is on the rise among those dealing with chronic diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
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Liver disease has become a lifestyle disease in India, with the incidence of non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease now much higher than hepatitis B virus as the main cause of liver disorders, said experts here ahead of the World Liver Day.
World liver day is observed on every April 19, to spread awareness about liver related disease. The liver is the second largest and the most complex organ in the body, after the brain. It is a key player in our body's digestive system.
Fatty liver condition occurs when fat builds up in the liver that can cause liver inflammation, and damage your liver and create scarring. In severe cases, the scarring can lead to liver failure.
Among people who drink a lot of alcohol, the condition is known as alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), while among those who don't drink a lot, it's metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), earlier known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
MAFLD is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Lifestyle changes involving obesity, sedentary lifestyle, food rich in sugar, calories and fat, and alcohol are the main reasons behind the poor liver health.
According to Dr Bhaskar Nandi, HOD - Liver & Digestive Sciences, Sarvodaya Hospital, Faridabad, till a few decades back, the most common cause of chronic liver disease in India was hepatitis B infection, that led to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.
"However, fatty liver, a metabolic disorder, now constitutes the largest burden of liver disease today due to changing lifestyle of people," he said. Nandi added that as many as "80 per cent of people coming for an ultrasound checkup today are found to have fatty liver disease".
While about one in three of these will progress to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, cirrhosis, or end-stage liver disease, it is difficult to predict which ones will fall in that one-third bracket.
"India is seeing a significant rise in liver problems due to lifestyle changes. To fight liver disease, it is necessary to change our lifestyle - proper and healthy diet, exercise, avoid drinking alcohol or drink in moderation, increasing our screening," Dr. Pankaj Puri, from Fortis Escorts Liver and Digestive Diseases Institute, told IANS.
Often liver disease goes undiagnosed for years, as the initial stages generally have no symptoms and people feel well, and routine blood tests may not show liver abnormalities.
Globally, liver condition is seen in about 25 per cent or one in four adults that often goes undiagnosed, raising the risk for heart disease, according to a new American Heart Association scientific statement.
Nandi said that liver disease is fast becoming a public health problem for India. In 2015, acute and chronic liver diseases accounted for 2 million deaths worldwide, 18 per cent of whom were from India. The burden of liver disease has consistently been increasing in the country since then.
While hepatitis B vaccination is commonly given to children for immunisation, it is not popular among adults. "Every year, more than 115,000 people die in India due to hepatitis B related complications. About 4 crore people in the country are carriers of this virus but remain asymptomatic and unaware of the risk they pose to others," Nandi said.
"Unlike in the West where main causes of transmission of hepatitis B virus include infected needles and sexual contact, in India, the spread is due to horizontal transmission by staying in proximity with an infected individual, like a family member who is asymptomatic," he noted.
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Want to maintain good health and keep diseases at bay? Cutting your waistline to less than half of your height could be key instead of just measuring body mass index (BMI), according to UK health experts.
The high build-up of fat around the waist, called "central adiposity", is a major cause for increasing the risk of Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.
Measuring waist-to-height ratio instead of just BMI can be more useful as BMI does not take into account excess weight around the abdomen. They are also not accurate in people with a BMI over 35, pregnant women or children under two, BBC reported.
For example, if you're 5ft 9 inches tall, then your waist measurement should be less than 87.5cm (34 inches) - or half your height, according to new draft guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).
The guidance stated that Asians and some ethnic groups are more prone to central adiposity.
The recommendation suggests these people make use of lower BMI thresholds for obesity to help predict their specific health risks.
"Explain to people that to measure their waist, they should find the bottom of their ribs and the top of their hips, wrap a tape measure around the waist midway between these points and breathe out naturally before taking the measurement," said NICE the guidelines.
While some experts feel trying "new ways" to get people to think about their health is not harmful, others said that measuring the waistline doesn't work for people who are very short or older people over 60 who may have lost height with ageing.
But Professor Rachel Batterham, consultant in obesity, diabetes and endocrinology, diagrees, the report said.
"Waist-to-height ratio is a simple, easy-to-use measure that identifies people who are at increased health risk and would benefit from weight management support to improve their health," Batterham was quoted as saying.
"Increased fat in the abdomen increases a person's risk of developing several life-limiting diseases including type 2 diabetes and heart disease," she added.
The updated guidelines noted that doctors should also consider using waist-to-height ratio in children and young people aged over five to assess and predict health risks.
Healthcare professionals and the public can comment on the proposed recommendations in the guidelines before they are published in May, the report said. (agency)
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Tokyo: Mycobacteria, a group of pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis in humans, are associated with red blood cells at lung infection sites.
M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria implicated in lung disease are now known to live in macrophages - white blood cells that engulf and kill pathogens. Mycobacteria turn up in blood and sputum coughed up by sick patients.
Red blood cells, although also found in the sputum of tuberculosis patients, have not yet been specifically studied in disease progression.
But, "our research will change the conventional common sense that mycobacteria grow intracellularly", said Yukiko Nishiuchi, Associate Professor at Hiroshima University in Japan.
The team obtained lung tissue samples from five mice infected with two species of Mycobacteria - M. avium and M. intracellulare - as well as from a human patient infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH).
Microscopic examination revealed red blood cells were co-located with mycobacteria in both the capillary vessels and granulomas (clumps of immune cells) of mice and human lung tissues.
To assess the relationship of the mycobacteria to human red blood cells, the team monitored their growth with and without the blood cells. They found that MAH grew more in the presence of red blood cells, multiplying at a rate dependent on blood cell concentration.
Their exponential growth was even faster than the growth of MAH inside macrophages - typically targeted as parasitic hosts by mycobacteria.
The findings, published in the journal Microbiology Spectrum, showed that pathogenic mycobacteria attach to human red blood cells, then capitalise on the relationship to multiply.
Mycobacteria had previously been found outside macrophages at infection sites; the new findings suggest that the presence of those extracellular mycobacteria may be a result of the relationship with red blood cells.
While red blood cells are best known for their role in transporting oxygen between lungs and tissues, they also play two roles in mycobacterial infections. They play a defensive role against infections by capturing pathogens and transferring them to macrophages in the liver and spleen to eliminate them.
Nishiuchi said the study shows that red blood cells may also get targeted as host cells for mycobacteria. However, how these roles play out might determine the outcome of an infection.
If the red blood cells' defense role is going well, the TB or other mycobacterial disease is controlled. But red blood cells overwhelmed by an attack of mycobacteria may help spread them throughout the body, Nishiuchi noted. (Agency)
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लंदन: शोधकर्ताओं ने टीबी (ट्यूबरक्यूलोसिस) और कैंसर के बीच एक अप्रत्याशित संबंध का पता लगाया है, जिससे वैश्विक स्तर पर हर साल 1.5 मिलियन से अधिक लोगों की जान लेने वाले जीवाणु रोग के लिए नई दवा का उपचार हो सकता है।
स्टैनफोर्ड मेडिसिन के शोधकर्ताओं के नेतृत्व में किए गए अध्ययन में पाया गया कि सक्रिय ट्यूबरक्यूलोसिस से संक्रमित वाले लोगों के फेफड़ों में ग्रेन्युलोमा नामक घाव प्रोटीन से भरे होते हैं जो कैंसर कोशिकाओं या संक्रमण के लिए शरीर की प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया को कम करने के लिए जाने जाते हैं।
कुछ प्रकार की कैंसर की दवाएं इन इम्यूनोसप्रेसिव प्रोटीन को लक्षित करती हैं। चूंकि इन दवाओं का व्यापक रूप से कैंसर रोगियों में उपयोग किया जाता है, शोधकर्ताओं को उम्मीद है कि यह परीक्षण करने के लिए नैदानिक परीक्षण जल्दी से शुरू किए जा सकते हैं कि क्या वे संक्रमण का मुकाबला कर सकते हैं।
ट्यूबरक्यूलोसिस दुनिया भर में लाखों लोगों को प्रभावित करता है और विस्तारित एंटीबायोटिक चिकित्सा के साथ भी इसका इलाज करना मुश्किल है।
विश्वविद्यालय के प्रमुख लेखक और स्नातक छात्र एरिन मैककैफ्रे ने कहा, ट्यूबरक्यूलोसिस एक बड़े पैमाने पर वैश्विक स्वास्थ्य पर बोझ है।
मैककैफ्री ने कहा, "ज्यादातर समय, प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली बैक्टीरिया को खत्म करने में असफल होती है, लेकिन यह ज्ञात नहीं है कि क्यों। ट्यूबरक्यूलोसिस बैक्टीरिया की प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया को भी प्रभावित कर सकते हैं।"
तकनीक का उपयोग करते हुए, उन्होंने सक्रिय टीबी वाले 15 लोगों के फेफड़ों और अन्य ऊतकों में ग्रेन्युलोमा में इम्यूनोसप्रेसिव प्रोटीन के स्थान का मानचित्रण किया।
स्टैनफोर्ड यूनिवर्सिटी मेडिकल सेंटर में पैथोलॉजी के सहायक प्रोफेसर माइक एंजेलो ने कहा, "हमने कैंसर के ट्यूमर की तुलना में अब तक देखे गए कुछ संकेतों को देखा।"
एंजेलो ने नेचर इम्यूनोलॉजी जर्नल में प्रकाशित अध्ययन में कहा, "यह ग्रैनुलोमा में प्रमुख इम्यूनोसप्रेसिव प्रोटीन की लगभग सार्वभौमिक उपस्थिति को इंगित करता है।"
विशेष रूप से, शोधकर्ताओं ने दो प्रोटीन- पीडी-एल 1 और आईडीओ 1 के उच्च स्तर को देखा, जो कैंसर के प्रति प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया को दबा सकते हैं और अक्सर ट्यूमर के ऊतकों में पाए जाते हैं। इन प्रोटीनों को अनुमोदित कैंसर दवाओं द्वारा लक्षित किया जाता है।
जब मैककैफ्रे और एंजेलो ने टीबी से संक्रमित 1,500 से अधिक लोगों के रक्त के नमूनों का अध्ययन किया, तो उन्होंने पाया कि पीडी-एल1 का स्तर नैदानिक लक्षणों से संबंधित है।
एंजेलो ने कहा, "हमने रक्त में इन संकेतों के वास्तव में लगातार अपग्रेडेशन देखा, जो असफल प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया का प्रतीक है। उनका उपयोग सक्रिय रोग में रोग की प्रगति की भविष्यवाणी करने के लिए भी किया जा सकता है।"
यह भी पढ़े► आनुवांशिक जांच से दिल की बीमारियों का पता चल सकेगा।
Under its Illness to Wellness Campaign, ASSOCHAM, an apex body, organized 'Kidney Care: Preventive and Curative Actions' on the eve of World Kidney Day with the objective of spreading awareness about kidney diseases.
Kidney diseases are silent killers, which can largely affect your quality of life. There are several ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.
"Kidney disease is mostly silent and thus neglected and not handled properly", said Dr Manju Aggarwal, Director and Head, Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Artemis Health Institute.
She went on to say that kidney disease is avoidable and that high-risk populations, such as those with diabetes and hypertension, should be educated and screened. Early detection and medical treatment can help postpone the onset of severe renal failure.
She addressed the audience by saying "Diagnosing renal illness can be a difficult experience for both the sufferer and those around them.
It limits their capacity to engage in daily activities such as employment, travel, and socialising. Patients with kidney disease, including those who require dialysis or transplantation, require additional assistance from society, patient groups, networks, government agencies and health insurance providers in the long run", she added.
Kidneys are very important organs that remove waste, control blood pressure, make haemoglobin, and maintain bone health, according to Dr Rishit K. Harbada, Consultant Nephrologist, BSES MG Hospital, Andheri, S.R.V Hospital, Goregaon, Associate Consultant, Sir H.N Reliance, Foundation Hospital, Mumbai.
He said, "Symptoms or indicators of renal disease may not appear until 80 per cent of your kidneys have been damaged". As a result, early detection is critical.
Controlling blood pressure, diabetes, eating properly, limiting alcohol intake, being active, avoiding over-the-counter drugs, painkillers, and regular follow-up are all critical for kidney health sharing precautionary measures in the session.
Dr Siddharth Vinod Lakhani, Consultant Nephrologist & Transplant Physician, Lakhani Kidney Clinic, Fortis Raheja Hospital, Global Hospital, Somaiya Hospital, Kohinoor Hospital, SRV Hospital, Zynova or Shalby Group of Hospitals, expressed his heartfelt gratitude to ASSOCHAM for organising this enlightening and interactive session.
"Prevention is better than cure." Dr Lakhani stated emphatically. "Let us work together to avoid and battle chronic renal disease", he said.
Dr Rajesh Kesari, Founder and Director, Total Care Control, Delhi–NCR, outlined his concern of the rising cases of kidney diseases in the nation and said, "Kidney disease has long been regarded as the most neglected chronic disorder."
A variety of communicable and noncommunicable diseases can cause kidney problems, and many patients with kidney disease do not have access to treatment.
Renal disorders' causes, consequences, and costs have implications for public health policy in all countries, as well as the problems that lie ahead.
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