London- Researchers have identified an anti-viral gene that impacts the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and severe Covid-19.
A team from the University College London (UCL) estimated that one genetic variant of the OAS1 gene increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease by about 3-6 per cent in the population as a whole, while related variants on the same gene increase the likelihood of severe Covid-19 outcomes.
"While Alzheimer's is primarily characterised by harmful build-up of amyloid protein and tangles in the brain, there is also extensive inflammation in the brain that highlights the importance of the immune system in Alzheimer's. We have found that some of the same immune system changes can occur in both Alzheimer's disease and Covid-19," said lead author Dr Dervis Salih, from UCL's Queen Square Institute of Neurology and UK Dementia Research Institute.
"In patients with severe Covid-19 infection, there can also be inflammatory changes in the brain. Here we have identified a gene that can contribute to an exaggerated immune response to increase risks of both Alzheimer's and Covid-19," Salih added, in the paper published in the journal Brain.
To understand the gene's link to Alzheimer's, the team sequenced genetic data from 2,547 people, half of whom had the brain disorder.
They found that people with a particular variation, called rs1131454, of the OAS1 gene were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease, increasing carriers' baseline risk of Alzheimer's by an estimated 11-22 per cent.
The new variant identified is common, and it has a bigger impact on Alzheimer's risk than several known risk genes, the researchers said.
Further, the researchers investigated four variants on the OAS1 gene, all of which dampen its expression (activity).
They found that the variants increasing the risk of Alzheimer's are linked (inherited together) with OAS1 variants recently found to increase the baseline risk of needing intensive care for Covid-19 by as much as 20 per cent.
That is, the microglia cells where OAS1 gene was expressed more weakly had an exaggerated response to tissue damage, unleashing what they call a 'cytokine storm,' which leads to an autoimmune state where the body attacks itself, the team said.
OAS1 activity changes with age, so further research into the genetic network could help to understand why older people are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's, Covid-19, and other related diseases, they added.
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Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
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Until a few years ago heart diseases were common among older people in India. However, in recent years, heart ailments have become more common among the younger population in India. Heart diseases are killing approximately 17 million people in the world, and in India, there million people die each year due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which include heart attack and stroke.
Therefore, it is important to understand what causes heart attacks in younger Indians. Following are a few reasons that cause a heart attack in Indians:
Over Exercising: A recent study that too much exercise may be bad for the heart. While inactivity is also linked to increase in heart diseases by giving rise to obesity and other chronic diseases, the study that was conducted displayed that the people who engage in physical activity that exceeds a recommended amount for them are more at risk of having a heart attack.
Dietary Supplements: There has been no research that shows a clear benefit of supplements. However, it has been said that consuming too many supplements can be harmful. Excessive amounts of calcium and vitamin D are said to be linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although there are studies that are ongoing around this, there has been little evidence that any amount of vitamin D supplement will protect the heart.
Stress and Heart Attack: In today’s fast-paced lives an individual faces a lot of stress due to their personal and professional relationships. Professionally, a lot of work takes place on a desk and the working hours are long. Therefore, this leads to young professionals having less sleep and high stress, which increases their risk of having heart diseases.
Hypertension: With our current dynamic lifestyles, food habits tend to change leading to increased salt consumption. Furthermore, there is increase in the amount of stress and our lifestyles are sedentary. All the factors together have led to an increase in hypertension among younger people. People with high blood pressure are likely to develop coronary diseases because high BP adds pressure on the artery walls and over time this can destroy the arteries.
Unhealthy Eating Habits: A lot of young professionals and students often go to food joints that serve unhealthy food items such as junk food. These foods have a high amount of cholesterol and trans fat which may lead to heart disease among people
Hence, to reduce the number of individuals with heart attacks, drastic steps need to be taken collectively and as individuals. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to spread awareness around the growing burden of heart attacks among younger Indians and individuals need to adapt to a more holistic and healthy approach to life. Even at the slightest indication of heart disease, one must reach out to their primary care consultant to stay safe and healthy.
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London - Covid-19 disease severity seems to be affected by the characteristics of white blood cells called granulocytes, which are part of the innate immune system.
Combined measurements of granulocytes and well-known biomarkers in the blood can predict the severity of the disease, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
Granulocytes are a family of white blood cells that include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
They are part of the so-called innate immune system, which is the body's first line of defence against pathogens.
There are many studies on how SARS-CoV-2 affects various components of the immune system, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the role of granulocytes in Covid-19.
Researchers at the Karolinska Institutet have now investigated the characteristics of granulocytes in the blood during the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a total of 26 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 at the Karolinska University Hospital.
They also performed follow-up analyses four months after hospital discharge and compared these with analyses of healthy uninfected individuals.
Their results, published in the journal PNAS, may eventually contribute to more tailored treatments for Covid-19 patients.
"Our study shows significantly altered characteristics of all granulocyte subsets in Covid-19A patients and this can be linked to the severity of the disease", said lead author Magda Lourda, who is a researcher at the Department of Medicine, Huddinge, at Karolinska Institutet.
Combined measurements of granulocyte characteristics and widely used biomarkers in the blood called C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine, could predict key clinical features such as respiratory function and multiorgan failure.
"The finding needs to be taken with caution considering the limited size of our study cohort, but our hope is that these combined measurements can be used to predict the severity of the disease, resulting in more tailored treatments for Covid-19 patients," Lourda said.
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डॉक्टरों और स्वास्थ्य विशेषज्ञों ने कहा है कि सेप्सिस से 2050 तक कैंसर और दिल के दौरे से ज्यादा लोगों की मौत होने की आशंका है। विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के अनुसार, सेप्सिस संक्रमण के लिए एक सिंड्रोमिक प्रतिक्रिया है और अक्सर दुनिया भर में कई संक्रामक रोगों से मृत्यु का एक अंतिम सामान्य रास्ता है।
लैंसेट जर्नल में प्रकाशित एक अध्ययन से पता चला है कि 2017 में दुनिया भर में 4.89 करोड़ मामले और 1.1 करोड़ सेप्सिस से संबंधित मौतें हुईं, जो सभी वैश्विक मौतों का लगभग 20 प्रतिशत है।
अध्ययन से यह भी पता चला कि अफगानिस्तान को छोड़कर अन्य दक्षिण एशियाई देशों की तुलना में भारत में सेप्सिस से मृत्यु दर अधिक है।
गुरुग्राम के इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ क्रिटिकल केयर एंड एनेस्थिसियोलॉजी, मेदांता - द मेडिसिटी के चेयरमैन, यतिन मेहता ने कहा, "सेप्सिस 2050 तक कैंसर या दिल के दौरे की तुलना में अधिक लोगों की जान ले लेगा। यह सबसे बड़ा हत्यारा होने जा रहा है। भारत जैसे विकासशील देशों में, एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं के अत्यधिक उपयोग के कारण शायद उच्च मृत्यु दर का कारण बन रहा है।"
ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि डेंगू, मलेरिया, यूटीआई या यहां तक कि दस्त जैसी कई सामान्य बीमारियों के कारण सेप्सिस हो सकता है।
मेहता स्वास्थ्य जागरूकता संस्थान - इंटीग्रेटेड हेल्थ एंड वेलबीइंग काउंसिल द्वारा हाल ही में आयोजित सेप्सिस समिट इंडिया 2021 में बोल रहे थे।
एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं के उपयोग के अलावा, विशेषज्ञों ने जागरूकता की कमी और शीघ्र निदान पर भी ध्यान दिया। उन्होंने जमीनी स्तर पर सेप्सिस के बारे में जागरूकता और शिक्षा बढ़ाने का आह्वान किया।
मेहता ने कहा, "चिकित्सा में प्रगति के बावजूद, तृतीयक देखभाल अस्पतालों में 50-60 प्रतिशत रोगियों को सेप्सिस और सेप्टिक शॉक होता है। जागरूकता और शीघ्र निदान की आवश्यकता है। साथ ही अनावश्यक एंटीबायोटिक चिकित्सा से बचा जाना चाहिए।"
भारत सरकार के पूर्व केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य सचिव लव वर्मा ने कहा, "सेप्सिस को वह मान्यता नहीं दी गई है जिसके वह हकदार हैं और यह नीति के ²ष्टिकोण से बहुत पीछे है। हमें मानक संचालन प्रक्रियाओं की आवश्यकता है और हमें भारतीय चिकित्सा अनुसंधान परिषद, सतत चिकित्सा शिक्षा (सीएमई) द्वारा शोधों में सेप्सिस के मामलों को चिह्न्ति करने की आवश्यकता है और इसे नीति निमार्ताओं द्वारा प्राथमिकता पर लिया जाना चाहिए।"
जबकि यह नवजात शिशुओं और गर्भवती महिलाओं में मृत्यु का एक प्रमुख कारण है। सेप्सिस वृद्ध वयस्कों, आईसीयू में रोगियों और एचआईवी / एड्स, लिवर सिरोसिस, कैंसर, गुर्दे की बीमारी और ऑटोइम्यून बीमारियों से पीड़ित लोगों को भी प्रभावित करता है।
विशेषज्ञों ने कहा कि इसने चल रहे कोविड -19 महामारी के दौरान रोग इम्यून के कारण होने वाली अधिकांश मौतों में भी प्रमुख भूमिका निभाई।
क्लाउडनाइन ग्रुप ऑफ हॉस्पिटल्स के संस्थापक और अध्यक्ष, किशोर कुमार ने कहा, "जब तक हम जनता को शिक्षित और जागरूक नहीं करेंगे, तब तक सेप्सिस एक पहेली बना रहेगा। हाल ही में, पीडियाट्रिक एसोसिएशन ऑफ इंडिया ने एएए - 'एंटीबायोटिक दुरुपयोग से बचें' नामक एक नारा अपनाया है, क्योंकि भारत में एंटीबायोटिक्स बहुत अधिक निर्धारित हैं। लगभग 54 प्रतिशत भारत में नवजात शिशु सेप्सिस से मरते हैं, जो अफ्रीका से भी बदतर है। हमें तीन-आयामी ²ष्टिकोण की आवश्यकता है - प्राथमिक रोकथाम, माध्यमिक रोकथाम और शिक्षा और जागरूकता है।"
यह भी पढ़े► अल्जाइमर रोग के कारणों का शोधकर्ताओं ने पता लगाया
World Alzheimer's Day- Constant exposure to noise pollution may increase the risk of dementia caused due to Alzheimer's disease while music could have positive impact, say doctors.
According to a recent study published in international health journals around the world, constant exposure to traffic noise increases the risk of dementia among aged population.
Each year, September 21 is commemorated as the World Alzheimer's Day, and Alzheimer's disease has been found to be the commonest cause of dementia.
Doctors say with India fast racing towards becoming the most populated country in the world, and with improved healthcare delivery mechanism, aged population is on the rise in the country. This section of the society is at the risk of developing age-related complications like dementia, which is often considered a serious mental problem caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normally.
Commenting on the problem, Sritheja Reddy, Consultant Neurologist, Gleneagles Global Hospital believes that music usually has a soothing effect on individuals of all ages, but loud and persistent noise can cause mental disturbance, and could even trigger experiences of ill being among those people who are suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's related problems. "Cities are usually bustling with great activity during the day times and in the nights, but this could increase exposure to excessive noise, that can lead to short term impairments in cognitive function, particularly with respect to the ability to focus and remember. And the most important aspect here is that chronic exposure to noise pollution may increase the risk for dementia," the doctor said.
Abhinay M. Huchche, Consultant Neurologist, SLG Hospitals says that musical sounds could have a positive impact on people suffering from dementia, caused due to Alzheimer's disease." Listening to or singing songs can provide emotional and behavioral benefits for people with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. Musical memories are often preserved in Alzheimer's disease because key brain areas linked to musical memory are relatively undamaged by the disease," he added.
Changala Praveen, Consultant - Neurophysician, Aware Gleneagles Global Hospital pointed out that ageing patients require extra attention, and those impacted by dementia require proper evaluation and management of the disease through a multidisciplinary approach. "Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause for dementia, and there are multiple reasons for aged population developing this problem. Constant exposure to loud and unsavoury sounds like traffic noise is also a major cause for the older people to develop dementia. People who have aged family members in the house must ensure the elderly are protected from loud noises, and this is the best solution to arrest complexities," he said.
Having exposure to high levels of noise during the night is especially concerning, as sleep is a critical period for mental and cognitive restoration. Fragmented sleep resulting from noise disturbance is associated with increased oxidative stress causes alterations in the immune system and increased systemic inflammation.
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