The World Health Organization (WHO) has associated approximately 4.2 million premature deaths per year with health issues related to air pollution. According to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) outdoor air pollution is related to more deaths than unsafe sex leading to HIV/AIDs, unsafe water, or malaria. Annual air pollution-related diseases also have a much higher death toll than Covid-19 to date.
With the country's air quality plummeting to hazardous levels after Diwali, people are complaining of respiratory trouble such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and incessant coughing. The high pollution levels are also likely to impact more people this year as a significant proportion of people who recovered from Covid-19 might not have completely healthy lungs. People are opting for various measures to combat the ill effects of pollution. Listed below are some important products that you can get your hands on to fight pollution.
1. Phillips Air Purifier: This purifier is the one product that everyone should own. It comes with 4 stage filtration and automatically senses the air quality and removes 99.97 per cent of airborne pollutants. It can purify a standard room within 12 minutes and provide real-time air quality feedback.
2. GO2 Therapy, Portable Oxygen Cans: gO2therapy was launched in April 2021. It is the second generation of high-purity (99 per cent+) portable Oxygen can, which is highly useful in our day-to-day life situations like pollution and emergencies. gO2 therapy can be used to perform oxygen therapy at home to help the body fight the ill effects of the city's pollution and not only increase mental and physical performance among fitness enthusiasts but also help in dealing with respiratory issues.
3. SmileDrive Portable Air Quality Meter: This portable meter is a great way to detect air quality indoor and outdoor. It detects the air around through air scattering detection. The big monitor screen can be used easily at the home, office or outdoors in the car. It has an inbuilt rechargeable battery and runs 10 times faster to provide accurate readings.
4. Boldfit N95 Reusable Masks: The N95 face mask, as suggested by doctors provides personal protection against dust, allergens, fog haze and is anti-odour. It is made of activated carbon that has cotton to ensure that the skin remains fresh all day. It also provides protection against dust and could be worn outdoors and indoors.
5. Environics Envirochip: Envirochip is clinically tested and certified with proven health benefits. It protects you from the harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation. It helps to reduce stress and boosts protects your immunity so that you can use your tech gadgets safely.
The small chip comes with one-of-a-kind technology that helps nullify the harmful effect of e-radiation emitted by a laptop/ mobile phone/ Smart TV/ Monitor, etc without compromising device performance. You can easily stick the chip at the body of your laptop or mobile phone the chip built on the foundation of radiation protection technology, changes the nature of electromagnetic radiation, making it harmless to the human body. (Agency)
Read More► Management of COPD During Pregnancy
COPD also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders is a group of lung diseases that blocks airflow and makes it difficult to breathe. The most common of these diseases are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Many people with COPD have both of these conditions. Emphysema slowly destroys air sacs in your lungs, which interferes with outward airflow. Bronchitis causes inflammation of the bronchi. COPD is a condition in which the disease worsens over time and it makes it difficult even to breathe. Asthma or Bronchitis is a very dangerous condition during pregnancy which causes fatigue, resulting in energy being diverted from the growing foetus.
Asthma can be hard to diagnose. To find out if you have asthma, your doctor takes your health history, does a physical exam and listens to your breathing.. You also may get a lung function test called spirometry. This is a test that checks how well your lungs work. During the test, you take a deep breath and exhale (blow) into a machine called a spirometer. This machine measures the amount of air you breathe in and out. It also measures how fast you can breathe. When you're pregnant, normal changes in your body can make you short of breath. This test can help your doctor know if shortness of breath is a common complication of pregnancy or if it's caused by asthma.
Treatment: Breathing Exercises with COPD
Pursed lip breathing
Pursed Lip Breathing
Pursed lip breathing has a range of benefits:
It's been shown to reduce how hard you have to work to breathe.
It helps release the air trapped in the lungs.
It promotes relaxation.
It reduces shortness of breath.
Practising this technique 4 to 5 times daily can help. Here's how to practice pursed-lip breathing:
While keeping your mouth closed, take a deep breath in through your nose, count to 2. Follow this pattern by repeating in your head "inhale, 1, 2." The breath doesn't have to be deep. A typical inhale will do. Put your lips together as if you're starting to whistle or blow out candles on a birthday cake. This is known as "pursing" your lips. While continuing to keep your lips pursed, slowly breathe out by counting to 4. Don't try to force the air out, but instead breathe out slowly through your mouth.
Tip: Pursed lip breathing is best for performing strenuous activities, such as climbing stairs.
Feeling short of breath can cause anxiety that makes you hold your breath. To prevent this from occurring, you can practice coordinated breathing using these two steps:
Inhale through your nose before beginning an exercise.
While pursuing your lips, breathe out through your mouth during the most strenuous part of the exercise. An example could be when curling upward on a bicep curl.
Tip: Coordinated breathing can be performed when you're exercising or feeling anxious.
Deep breathing prevents air from getting trapped in your lungs, which can cause you to feel short of breath. As a result, you can breathe in the more fresh air.
Here's how to practice deep breathing:
Sit or stand with your elbows slightly back. This allows your chest to expand more fully.
Inhale deeply through your nose.
Hold your breath as you count to 5.
Release the air via a slow, deep exhale, through your nose, until you feel your inhaled air has been released.
Exercise tip: It's best to do this exercise with other daily breathing exercises that can be performed for 10 minutes at a time, 3 to 4 times per day.
When you have COPD, mucus can build up more easily in your lungs. The huffing is a breathing exercise designed to help you cough up mucus effectively without making you feel too tired.
Here's how to practice the huffing:
Place yourself in a comfortable seated position. Inhale through your mouth, slightly deeper than you would when taking a normal breath.
Activate your stomach muscles to blow the air out in three even breaths while making the sounds "ha, ha, ha." Imagine you're blowing onto a mirror to cause it to steam.
Exercise tip: A huff should be less tiring than a traditional cough, and it can keep you from feeling worn out when coughing up mucus.
The diaphragm is an important muscle involved in the work of breathing.
People with COPD tend to rely more on the accessory muscles of the neck, shoulders, and back to breathe, rather than on the diaphragm. Diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing helps to retrain this muscle to work more effectively. Here's how to do it:
While sitting or lying down with your shoulders relaxed, put a hand on your chest and place the other hand on your stomach.
Take a breath in through your nose for 2 seconds, feeling your stomach move outward. You're doing the activity correctly if your stomach moves more than your chest.
Purse your lips and breathe out slowly through your mouth, pressing lightly on your stomach. This will enhance your diaphragm's ability to release air.
Repeat the exercise as you are able to.
Protect Your Lungs during Pregnancy
Since you're essentially breathing for two, take these steps to protect your lung health and your infant's health:
Tell Your Doctor About Any Shortness of Breath- There can be many reasons for shortness of breath in pregnancy. Pregnant women are no strangers to shortness of breath. Early pregnancy hormone surges and, later, the weight and bulk of your expanding womb restrict your breathing. If you're feeling short of breath, and you're worried about it for any reason, let your doctor know.
Ask for A Lung Function Test- While the parameters for the test might change as your pregnancy progresses, the simple, noninvasive lung test called spirometry can help your doctor check on your breathing.
Manage Asthma- Uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy puts both babies and you at risk. If you've been lax about your asthma medications, it's time to update your routine for pregnancy and then stick to it.
Avoid Cigarette Smoke- Don't smoke, ban smoking at home, and avoid all environments where you are exposed to cigarette smoke.(Suryalakshmi Paleri, Executive Physiotherapist, Cloudnine Group Of Hospitals, Bengaluru (Malleshwaram))
Read More► Wellness Tips for Common Aliments During Winter
Recent medical advances have made breast cancer a highly manageable disease, especially when detected early, as in the case of stages 0-to-II cancers.
Timely treatment also minimises disruptions to the patient's daily routine and quality of life. Advancements in digitalisation have also greatly benefited women, as they can easily access information through YouTube on how to self-examine themselves and learn about breast anatomy or changes in breast structure that should be brought to the notice of specialists immediately.
Women above the age group of 20 -25 years should examine themselves monthly, and those above 40 years of age should go for mammography at regular intervals. With earlier breast cancer detection, the survival rate increases to 80 per cent (Stage 1 and stage 2), as compared to 56 per cent in Stage 3 and stage 4.
In India, however, early treatment is the exception rather than the norm. By the time most patients are diagnosed, they are already in stage III or IV of the disease, where treatment modalities are more complex. Additionally, the stigma of living with breast cancer can hamper the patients' quality of life in physical, psychological, and social terms.
Mental health counselling, family and institutional support, and new drugs and modalities can help women at all stages of breast cancer to improve life expectancy, health, and overall happiness, thus ticking all the boxes for improved life quality.
Stigma And Suffering
One in 28 Indian women is at risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. As per a CII report, the median age for diagnosis is 46 years, and nearly half of all diagnosed women are premenopausal, i.e., relatively young compared to breast cancer patients in Western nations.
The concern, though, is that at the time of diagnosis, around 70 per cent of Indian women are already in stage III or stage IV (known as metastatic breast cancer, or cancer that has spread to other parts of the body). While getting screened early may seem like an evident solution, however, low awareness and culturally ingrained stigmas still prevent many women from getting the timely help they need.
Due to cultural factors and social taboos, women do not get checked for breast cancer or share their symptoms with others, thereby leading to delayed diagnosis. Unfortunately, the pandemic has only amplified the burden of our healthcare system, magnifying these delays.
A QOL-Itative Approach
Focusing on patients' QOL means helping them thrive on the physical, emotional and social parameters by improving their all-around experience of the disease. New hope has also come in the form of targeted therapies that shrink or remove tumours by disabling specific proteins on cancerous cells to block their growth.
These therapies, which can often be taken orally, allow patients to bypass chemotherapy and related harsh side effects. Targeted therapies are proving more effective than chemotherapy in extending the survival rates of patients with stage III or IV cancers up to 5-8 years even if a patient is diagnosed at a metastatic stage.
The rise of non-invasive, chemo-free targeted therapies is opening a new front in the battle against advanced and metastatic breast cancer. By reducing or eliminating frequent hospital visits and the side-effects they earlier took for granted, it is possible to enhance patients' physical and psychological well-being and to help them live longer with dignity and independence.
Breast cancer doesn't mean the end of life. Today, treatment options for breast cancer have advanced, giving hope to patients even in advanced stages. Nowadays, due to government policies (Ayushman Bharat), every woman, regardless of her social strata, can avail of world-class cancer treatment in medical facilities across the country.
Even in advanced stages, families should not lose hope, as newer drugs such as molecular therapy treatment have proven effective for patients suffering from hormone-positive breast cancer, which is the most common form of cancer among Indian women. As many as 60 to 90 per cent of patients respond to these advanced treatments positively, enabling them to lead an enhanced quality of life. With such innovations, cancer can be viewed as a chronic disease that needs management.
Awareness-building and sensitisation are key. Educating women and girls in urban and rural contexts about breast cancer, the importance of regular self-monitoring, and de-stigmatising medical examinations and advanced treatment options, so that they can maximise their chances of identifying and beating the disease.
It would also help address psychosocial impacts like anxiety, depression, or fear by making therapy or psychiatry facilities accessible, affordable, and un-stigmatised for patients. This would also include teaching families and communities to support patients by accompanying them for treatments, helping with chores, spending time with them, and not letting them feel like a "burden".
The late American writer John Diamond said that cancer is "a word and not a sentence". However, for lakhs of women, breast cancer is a life-changing reality. While conventional treatments for breast cancer are constantly evolving and their efficacy is undeniable, life after a breast cancer diagnosis is about more than survival (extending the patient's life) or pain management (alleviating physical discomfort). What's required is a holistic approach towards improving the quality of the patient's life and this is being understood today. (Padma Shri Pankaj Shah, Medical Oncology Haematology, Zydus Hospital, Ahmedabad)
Read More► Is Pregnancy Related Low Back Pain Sciatica?
Although India has, for a long time, battled the incidence of cancer, latest estimates pegs them to be rising at significantly higher rate. Once thought of as an old age disease, cancer is now a cause of concern also among the youth and children.
National Cancer Awareness Day is observed every year on November 7 in India, to increase awareness about cancer prevention and the need for its early detection.
According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), there will be an estimated 12 per cent rise in cancer cases in India in the next five years.
Longer life expectancy is a major contributor to the overall cancer incidence. As people grow old, their bodies have longer time to allow faults to build up and the body accumulates more of these faults in the genes, considerably increasing the risk of cancer.
"Larger proportion of older individuals is the first cause of increased cancer numbers. The higher the proportion of older age in the population, the higher is the chance of cancer," Wesley M Jose, Clinical Associate Professor, Medical Oncology, Amrita Hospital, Kochi, told IANS.
Further, males (52.4 per cent) are more prone to the risk of all cancer cases compared to females (47.4 per cent). Tobacco use is the major reason comprising 48.7 per cent of cancers among males and 16.5 per cent among females.
A recent report states that the number of cancers associated with tobacco use in 2025 would be 4,27,273 contributing to 27.2 per cent of India's total projected cancer cases. Initiation of tobacco, known to contain at least 69 cancer-causing agents, in the youth is a contributory factor to the increased burden of cancers associated with tobacco use in India.
"Tobacco cessation will reduce the cancer burden by about 25 per cent. The major contributing factor being tobacco and ghutka consumption that directly accounts for 27 per cent of cancers in India," Murad E. Lala, Oncologist at P.D. Hinduja Hospital & MRC, Mahim, Mumbai, told IANS.
"We all know that oral and lung cancer that affects our male population to the maximum can be prevented by curbing smoking and tobacco consumption. We need to start thinking of some unhealthy foods similar to what we think about tobacco unnecessary, addictive, and harmful," said Anil Heroor, Director-Advanced OncoSurgery Unit, Fortis Hospitals Mumbai.
Apart from tobacco, alcohol, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and environmental factors also contribute to the increase in cancers.
"The overall living circumstances of the Indian population have improved and that have also led to a larger sedentary workforce, which has access to a high-calorie diet. These factors indirectly have affected the rise in numbers," Jose said.
"Nearly six types of cancers are linked to obesity and are slowly on the rise among people under 50. These are cancers of the colon or rectal, pancreas, kidney, gallbladder, uterine (also called endometrial cancer), and multiple myeloma. These Cancers are often not discovered in younger people until the disease is advanced and harder to treat," Heroor said.
Childhood cancer is also seeing an increasing trend, mainly of leukemia and lymphomas. Childhood (0-14 years) cancers constitute 7.9 per cent of all cancers, according to ICMR.
"The common types of cancers in children are leukemias, lymphomas, CNS tumours, retinoblastomas and Wilm's tumours. While most of the childhood cancers are curable if detected early and treated appropriately, children in India have limited access to tertiary centres that treat childhood cancers. This delay in treatment causes the survival rate to drop," Jose said.
The cancer burden in the country can be reduced by strengthening the government health systems, making universal health coverage, health education, treatment compliance, and early detection centres at the community level.
Besides, vaccination for virus-related cancer like liver and cervix, and improved physical activity, stricter tobacco and alcohol laws can also help, the experts suggested. (IANS)
Read More► Women Can Have A Heart Problem & Not Even Realise It
इंडियन काउंसिल ऑफ मेडिकल रिसर्च (आईसीएमआर) द्वारा तैयार की गई एक रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि 2012-19 के बीच कैंसर के कुल मामलों में से 7.9 फीसदी 14 साल से कम उम्र के बच्चों में पाए गए। 'क्लिनिकोपैथोलॉजिकल प्रोफाइल ऑफ कैंसर्स इन इंडिया : ए रिपोर्ट ऑफ हॉस्पिटल-बेस्ड कैंसर रजिस्ट्रीज, 2021', नेशनल कैंसर रजिस्ट्री प्रोग्राम (एनसीआरपी) के तहत 96 अस्पताल-आधारित कैंसर रजिस्ट्रियों की अवधि के दौरान एकत्र किए गए डेटा को समेकित करता है। डेटा देशभर में इन केंद्रों को रिपोर्ट किए गए पुष्टिकृत विकृतियों के सभी निदान और इलाज के मामलों से संबंधित हैं।
देश में 2012-19 के दौरान कैंसर के 13,32,207 मामले दर्ज किए गए। इनमें से 6,10,084 को डेटा की पूर्णता और गुणवत्ता के आधार पर विश्लेषण के लिए शामिल किया गया था।
बचपन के कैंसर वैश्विक स्तर पर बचपन की बीमारियों के प्रमुख कारण के रूप में नौवें स्थान पर हैं, विकलांगता समायोजित जीवन वर्ष (डीएएलवाई) के 11.5 मिलियन के लिए जिम्मेदार है।
भारत में, एनसीआरपी की एक हालिया रिपोर्ट के अनुसार, सभी आयु समूहों में कैंसर के सापेक्ष बचपन के कैंसर (0-19 वर्ष) का अनुपात 1 से 4.9 प्रतिशत के बीच पाया गया।
दिल्ली में लड़कों में 203.1 प्रति मिलियन और लड़कियों में 125.4 प्रति मिलियन की उच्चतम आयु-समायोजित घटना दर (एएआर) दर्ज की। ल्यूकेमिया 0-14 वर्ष आयु वर्ग में दोनों लिंगों में सभी बचपन के कैंसर के लगभग आधे के लिए जिम्मेदार है (लड़कों में 46.4 प्रतिशत और लड़कियों में 44.3 प्रतिशत)। लड़कों में अन्य सामान्य बचपन का कैंसर लिम्फोमा (16.4 प्रतिशत) था, जबकि लड़कियों में यह घातक अस्थि ट्यूमर (8.9 प्रतिशत) था।
बचपन के कैंसर दो आयु समूहों के लिए प्रस्तुत किए जाते हैं : 0-14 वर्ष और 0-19 वर्ष राष्ट्रीय और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय तुलना को सक्षम करने के लिए और बचपन के कैंसर के अंतर्राष्ट्रीय वर्गीकरण के अनुसार वर्गीकृत किया जाता है।
रिपोर्ट में कहा गया है कि बचपन के कैंसर के अलावा, तंबाकू के उपयोग से जुड़े कैंसर में पुरुषों में 48.7 प्रतिशत और महिलाओं में 16.5 प्रतिशत कैंसर शामिल हैं।
थायरॉइड कैंसर (महिलाओं में 2.5 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 1 प्रतिशत) और पित्ताशय के कैंसर (महिलाओं में 3.7 प्रतिशत बनाम पुरुषों में 2.2 प्रतिशत) को छोड़कर, साइट-विशिष्ट कैंसर का सापेक्ष अनुपात महिलाओं की तुलना में पुरुषों में अधिक था।
सभी कैंसरों में दूर के मेटास्टेसिस का उच्चतम अनुपात फेफड़ों के कैंसर (49.2 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 55.5 प्रतिशत महिलाओं) के रोगियों में देखा गया, इसके बाद पित्ताशय का कैंसर (40.9 प्रतिशत पुरुष और 45.7 प्रतिशत महिलाएं) और प्रोस्टेट कैंसर (42.9 प्रतिशत) का स्थान है।
रिपोर्ट ने सुझाव दिया कि कई कैंसर के लिए कीमोथेरेपी अभी भी सबसे विशिष्ट उपचार पद्धति थी, भले ही प्रस्तुति में रोग की नैदानिक सीमा कुछ भी हो, जिसमें यकृत, पित्ताशय, पेट, फेफड़े और बचपन के कैंसर शामिल हैं।
यह भी पढ़े► कैंसर और हार्ट अटैक से ज्यादा खतरनाक हो जाएगा सेप्सिस: शोध
लंदन| यूरोपियन सोसाइटी फॉर मेडिकल ऑन्कोलॉजी के वार्षिक सम्मेलन में प्रस्तुत अध्ययनों के अनुसार, कोविड -19 के खिलाफ टीकाकरण कैंसर के रोगियों में प्रभावी है, जिनकी प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली विभिन्न कैंसर विरोधी दवाओं से कमजोर हो जाती है। निष्कर्षों से पता चला कि कैंसर से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों में सामान्य आबादी की तुलना में किसी भी अधिक दुष्प्रभाव का अनुभव किए बिना टीकाकरण के लिए एक उपयुक्त, सुरक्षात्मक प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिक्रिया होती है। अप्रत्यक्ष साक्ष्य यह भी बताते हैं कि एक तीसरा बूस्टर शॉट इस रोगी आबादी के बीच सुरक्षा के स्तर को और बढ़ा सकता है।
वीओआईसीई नाम के एक अध्ययन से पता चला है कि कैंसर के मरीज जिन्होंने कोविड जैब लिया था, उन्हें मौजूदा ऑन्कोलॉजी उपचार की परवाह किए बिना सुरक्षित रखा गया था।
इस अध्ययन ने नीदरलैंड के कई अस्पतालों के 791 रोगियों को चार अलग-अलग अध्ययन समूहों में नामांकित किया, जिनमें कैंसर के बिना व्यक्ति, इम्यूनोथेरेपी के साथ इलाज किए गए कैंसर के रोगी, कीमोथेरेपी के साथ इलाज किए गए रोगियों और अंत में एक कीमो-इम्यूनोथेरेपी संयोजन के साथ इलाज किए गए रोगियों को मॉडर्न के दो के प्रति उनकी प्रतिक्रियाओं को मापने के लिए डोज एमआरएनए-1273 वैक्सीन में शामिल किया गया था।
इटली के मिलान में यूरोपियन इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ ऑन्कोलॉजी में फेफड़े के कैंसर विशेषज्ञ डॉ एंटोनियो पासारो के अनुसार, ये परिणाम कैंसर के बिना व्यक्तियों के समूह के लगभग सभी (99.6 प्रतिशत) में देखी गई एंटीबॉडी प्रतिक्रियाओं के साथ अनुकूल रूप से तुलना करते हैं, जो अध्ययन में शामिल नहीं हैं।
उन्होंने कहा कि परीक्षण आबादी में देखे गए टीके की प्रभावकारिता की उच्च दर, कैंसर विरोधी उपचार के प्रकार की परवाह किए बिना, रोगियों और उनके डॉक्टरों के लिए एक मजबूत और आश्वस्त करने वाला संदेश है।
इसी तरह के परिणाम इजराइल में कैंसर के 232 रोगियों और 261 नियंत्रण विषयों के बीच टोजि़नामेरन (फाइजर-बायोएनटेक) के प्रभावों पर किए गए एक अन्य अध्ययन में पाए गए। कैंसर से पीड़ित एक तिहाई से भी कम (29 प्रतिशत) ने पहली खुराक प्राप्त करने के बाद एंटीबॉडी विकसित की, जबकि नियंत्रण समूह में 84 प्रतिशत की तुलना में, दूसरी खुराक के प्रशासन के बाद यह अनुपात बढ़कर 86 प्रतिशत हो गया।
उपरोक्त दोनों अध्ययनों ने वायरस के खिलाफ पर्याप्त सुरक्षात्मक एंटीबॉडी विकसित करने के लिए कैंसर के रोगियों के लिए कोविड वैक्स का दूसरा शॉट लेने की आवश्यकता पर भी जोर दिया।
न्यू इंग्लैंड जर्नल ऑफ मेडिसिन में प्रकाशित एक अध्ययन से पता चला है कि 60 वर्ष या उससे अधिक उम्र के लोगों पर एक बूस्टर शॉट, उनके टीकाकरण चक्र को पूरा करने के पांच महीने बाद, कोविड -19 और गंभीर बीमारी की घटनाओं को कम करता है।
डॉ लुइस कैस्टेलो ने कहा कि ये निष्कर्ष कैंसर के रोगियों को उनकी सुरक्षा में सुधार करने के लिए संभावित रूप से तीसरी बूस्टर खुराक सहित पूरे चक्र की पेशकश के सिद्धांत को अतिरिक्त समर्थन देते हैं, क्योंकि इससे पता चलता है कि उनकी प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली अतिरिक्त उत्तेजना का जवाब देगी। ब्रैंको, मेडिकल ऑन्कोलॉजिस्ट, ईएसएमओ साइंटिफिक एंड मेडिकल डिवीजन, जो अध्ययन का हिस्सा नहीं थे।
यह भी पढ़े►कोविड के ठीक होने के बाद हर छह महीने में जांच करवाएं -शोध