In simple terms, body odour is the smell your body exudes when sweat comes in contact with the bacteria. The odour is not a result of just sweat but the bacteria that causes the sweat to smell. The most common affected areas are the armpits, groin, and pubic areas.
While body odour is common in most people and the extent of the odour depends from person to person, an individual may be more prone to body odour if they are overweight, eat certain types of foods, have certain prior health conditions or are under stress.
There are many factors that cause our body to smell and according to Soumita Biswas, Chief Nutritionist, Aster RV Hospital, "Various factors like diet, sex, health, and medication contribute to body odour but the major contribution comes from bacterial activity on skin and gland secretions.
There are three types of sweat glands present in the human body namely sebaceous glands, eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands. Body odour typically results from the apocrine sweat glands from which most chemical compounds are secreted that the microbiota present on the skin further processes into the substances that cause odour.
Certain areas are more prone to this process, such as the underarm area, the navel area, the neck, the genitals and behind the ears. Largely the armpits are an area of concern in comparison to any other part of the body."
How does diet play a role in body odour?
"Diet can play a contributing role in body odour. Potent items like chilly, garlic, onion etc. can give a pungent odour to the sweat. A protein-rich diet is also believed to be a cause of body odour. If you are eating high levels of certain foods, foul-smelling compounds they contain may be excreted through your sweat glands to give an unpleasant odour.
Those compounds are known as VOCs (volatile organic compounds), and they can produce some particularly pungent sweat, according to a New York-based dermatological study", Soumita adds, "Increasing intake of certain nutrients helps reduce body odours.
Spinach, lettuce, kale, arugula and other leafy green vegetables contain high levels of chlorophyll. Odour-inducing components in the body can be easily neutralised by chlorophyll.
Food stuff like peas, lentils, and beans are high in fibre content. Ensure you are eating enough of these as it facilitates digestion. Consequently, any smelly compounds in your food is processed more quickly and less can exit through sweat
The acids contained in citrus fruits like oranges, lemons and grapefruit encourage the passage of water through the body, which minimizes toxins. These can be consumed in form of fruit or fruit juices for maximum benefit.
Herbal teas such as chamomile, green tea and peppermint improve digestion hence preventing unwanted residuals in the gut which cause bad odour. Floral jasmine tea can actively help you smell fresher. (N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe)
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London: Dogs are more effective at detecting Covid-19 infections through human sweat samples than the existing rapid antigen tests, according to a study.
The study, published in the PLOS ONE, showed that dogs were 97 per cent effective at detecting Covid infection compared to PCR tests - the most accurate Covid test. On the other hand, the nasal antigen tests detected 84 per cent of positive Covid infections.
The findings suggest a potentially less invasive and quicker Covid testing alternative.
For the study, researchers at the Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris included PCR and sweat samples from 335 people and antigen tests from 234 people recruited in Paris from March 16 and April 9, 2021.
The researchers examined five dogs trained to sniff out Covid-19 by examining both positive and negative tests to see if they could tell.
They found canines were 100 per cent accurate in detecting positive Covid cases in asymptomatic individuals compared to PCR test results.
The canines were slightly less effective at identifying negative coronavirus infections, detecting 90 per cent of negative cases compared to antigen tests that were 97 per cent accurate.
"Non-invasive detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection by canine olfaction could be one alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs RT-PCR when it is necessary to obtain a result very quickly according to the same indications as antigenic tests in the context of mass screening," the researchers wrote in the paper.
Previous studies have shown dogs to detect malaria, prostate cancer, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and also breast cancer. (Agency)
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न्यूयॉर्क: शोधकर्ताओं का कहना है कि 60 साल या उससे अधिक आयु के मरीजों को जितना अधिक एंटीबायोटिक दिया जायेगा, उतना ही उनके इंफ्लेमेटरी बाउल डिजीज (आईबीडी) से ग्रसित होने की संभावना बढ़ती जायेगी। न्यूयॉर्क यूनिवर्सिटी के ग्रॉसमैन स्कूल ऑफ मेडिसिन के शोधकर्ता एडम एस फाये के अनुसार, 60 साल और उससे अधिक आयु के लोगों के क्रॉन बीमारी और अल्सरेटीव कोलाइटिस से ग्रसित होने में एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं के सेवन की भूमिका रही है।
शोध अध्ययन के दौरान 23 लाख मरीजों के रिकॉर्ड की समीक्षा की गई।
शोधकर्ताओं का कहना है कि दूसरे व्यस्कों में पर्यावरणीय कारक जेनेटिक्स से अधिक महत्वपूर्ण हैं।
उन्होंने कहा कि जब क्रॉन बीमारी और अल्सरेटीव कोलाइटिस से ग्रसित युवा मरीजों के रिकॉर्ड को देखा जाये तो पता चलेगा कि उनकी फैमिली हिस्ट्री मजबूत रही है। लेकिन अधिक आयु के लोगों के मामले में ऐसा नहीं है यानी पर्यावरण में कुछ ऐसा है जिससे यह हो रहा है।
शोधकर्ताओं ने डेनमार्क के नेशनल डाटाबेस का इस्तेमाल किया। यह सभी लोगों के मेडिकल रिकॉर्ड का डाटाबेस है। शोधकर्ताओं ने 2000 से 2018 के बीच आईबीडी से ग्रसित होने वाले 60 साल और उससे अधिक आयु के लोगों को लिखी जाने वाली दवाओं के रिकॉर्ड देखे।
शोधकर्ताओं ने देखा कि उन मरीजों को एंटीबायोटिक का कौन सा कोर्स किया है और उन्होंने हाल ही में कब एंटीबायोटिक ली थी।
उन्होंने पाया कि एंटीबायोटिक के इस्तेमाल से आईबीडी से ग्रसित होने की संभावना बढ़ जाती है और जैसे-जैसे मरीज अन्य एंटीबायोटिक का कोर्स करता है, वैसे-वैसे यह संभावना भी बढ़ती जाती है।
एक कोर्स के बाद मरीज के आईबीडी से ग्रसित होने की संभावना 27 प्रतिशत अधिक बढ़ जाती है। एंटीबायोटिक का दो कोर्स करने पर यह जोखिम 55 प्रतिशत और तीन कोर्स करने पर 67 प्रतिशत बढ़ जाती है।
चार कोर्स करने पर यह संभावना 96 प्रतिशत और पांच या उससे अधिक कोर्स करने पर 236 प्रतिशत बढ़ जाती है। (एजेंसी)
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Healthy adults who eat a diverse diet, with at least 8-10 grams of soluble fibre such as grains, beans, lentils, nuts and some fruits and vegetables daily, have fewer antibiotic-resistant microbes in their guts, according to a study.
Microbes that have resistance to various commonly-used antibiotics such as tetracycline and aminoglycoside are a significant source of risk for people worldwide, with the widely held expectation that the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) - the term that refers to bacteria, viruses, and fungi that are resistant to antibiotics - is likely to worsen throughout the coming decades.
Antimicrobial resistance in people is largely based in their gut microbiome, where the microbes are known to carry genetically encoded strategies to survive contact with antibiotics.
"And the results lead directly to the idea that modifying the diet has the potential to be a new weapon in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. And we're not talking about eating some exotic diet either, but a diverse diet, adequate in fibre," said research molecular biologist Danielle Lemay at the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service.
In the study, published in the journal mBio, the researchers found that regularly eating a diet with higher levels of fibre and lower levels of protein, especially from beef and pork, was significantly correlated with lower levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) among their gut microbes.
Those with the lowest levels of ARG in their gut microbiomes also had a greater abundance of strict anaerobic microbes, which are bacteria that do not thrive when oxygen is present and are a hallmark of a healthy gut with low inflammation. Bacterial species in the family Clostridiaceae were the most numerous anaerobes found.
But the amount of animal protein in the diet was not a top predictor of high levels of ARG. The strongest evidence was for the association of higher amounts of soluble fibre in the diet with lower levels of ARGs.
"Surprisingly, the most important predictor of low levels of ARG, even more than fibre, was the diversity of the diet. This suggests that we may want to eat from diverse sources of foods that tend to be higher in soluble fibre for maximum benefit," Lemay added.
On the other hand, those people who had the highest levels of ARG in their gut microbiomes were found to have significantly less diverse gut microbiomes compared to groups with low and medium levels of ARG.
"Our diets provide food for gut microbes. This all suggests that what we eat might be a solution to reduce antimicrobial resistance by modifying the gut microbiome," Lemay said. (agency)
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It is common for an expectant mother to feel stressed about pregnancy, especially those who are pregnant for the first time. It can bring up a range of emotions and anxieties. Being concerned about having a healthy pregnancy is not a bad thing because it can push people to take action in the face of new challenges.
However, when the stress becomes too overwhelming, it could lead to health problems for the mother and the baby. Hence, it is necessary to consult with your doctor for a smooth and risk-free pregnancy.
Understanding The Common Causes of Stress During Pregnancy
Finding out that they are pregnant can be a stressful experience in itself for some women. Stress arises mostly in unplanned pregnancy. Other factors such as fear of pregnancy loss, fear of labour and delivery, financial problems, uncomfortable physical changes like nausea, tiredness, mood swings, and backaches, miscarriage, and fear of taking care of the baby when the baby is born could lead to stress among pregnant women.
It's Important For Mothers to Keep Herself Stress Free
Maternal stress or anxiety during pregnancy can affect the fetus, causing possible long-term consequences for infant and child development. Chronic stress can affect the mother's health and can cause headaches, problems sleeping, fast breathing, and a racing pulse.
Also, it could lead to preeclampsia, miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth rate. Thus, it is important to look after the mental well-being and take care of the physical health of the mother during pregnancy.
Risks of Stress to Your Baby and Pregnancy Are:
Preeclampsia: Research shows that if you already have high blood pressure, you're at greater risk of getting preeclampsia during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a potentially dangerous pregnancy complication characterised by high blood pressure. It usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman whose blood pressure had been normal. It can lead to complications for both mother and baby.
Miscarriage: Also known as spontaneous abortion, it can be both physically and emotionally painful. Research shows that women who had major negative life events or psychological stress exposure were twice as likely to have early miscarriages. The stressers of pregnancy can trigger depression in some people. To cope up, people use harmful substances like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. These can increase the risk of certain pregnancy complications, including miscarriage.
Preterm Birth and Low Birth Rate: Studies show that mothers who experience more stress are more likely to go into labourearly.Stress can increase the chances of having a premature baby (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or a low-birthweight baby (who weigh less than 5 and a half lb (2.5 kg or 2500 g) at birth). Chronic stress can lead to long-term changes in the body's vascular system, hormone levels, and the ability to fight infection. All these, can potentially influence labour to start before the baby is full-term.
Some studies show that high levels of stress during pregnancy could lead to a higher chance of the child developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stress may also affect the baby's brain development or immune system.
Tips to Manage Stress During Pregnancy
Here are some ways to help you reduce stress:
Remember all the discomforts you experience during pregnancy are temporary. Learn how to manage and deal with the discomforts. One can talk to someone who knows about pregnancy or your doctor
Eat healthy, take enough rest, sleep and exercise
To help manage the stress, one can try relaxation activities, like prenatal yoga or meditation
Read a lot about pregnancy so you know what to expect during pregnancy and when your baby arrives.
Plan ahead and don't miss any appointments. (Dr. N Sapna Lulla, Lead Consultant - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Aster CMI Hospital)
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London: Regular high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercises such as squats, sprints, and pedalling can improve the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by impacting on several metabolic pathways in the body, finds a new study.
A team from the University of Eastern Finland found that regular HIIT exercise over a period of 12 weeks significantly decreased the study participants' fasting glucose and waist circumference, and improved their maximum oxygen consumption rate and maximum achieved workload.
These positive effects were associated with alterations in the abundance of a number of metabolites. In particular, exercise altered amino acid metabolism in adipose tissue, according to the study published in Scientific Reports.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, affecting approximately 25 per cent of the world's population. Being largely asymptomatic, the disease may progress from the accumulation of fat in liver cells to liver inflammation and liver cirrhosis.
NAFLD is associated with obesity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, such as Type 2 diabetes and abnormal blood lipid concentrations. The accumulation of fat in the liver can be reduced by weight loss and a health-promoting diet.
Exercise is an integral part of the treatment of NAFLD. The benefits of exercise may relate not only to weight management, but also to alterations in the metabolites produced by the body and gut microbes, whose role in fatty liver disease remains poorly understood.
The study involved 46 subjects diagnosed with NAFLD, who were divided into an exercise intervention group that had a HIIT session twice a week, plus an independent training session once a week for 12 weeks, and into a control group that did not increase exercise during the study.
The most significant alterations were observed in amino acids and their derivatives, lipids, and bile acids.
The levels of various gut microbial metabolites were also altered as a result of exercise, which is suggestive of changes in the composition of gut microbes, or in their function.
Among these metabolites, an increased amount of indolelactic acid, for example, can strengthen the intestinal mucosa, immune defence, and glucose balance.
Based on the findings, exercise can have a beneficial effect on many factors contributing to disease in patients with NAFLD, even without weight loss and dietary changes, the researchers said. Adipose tissue seems to play a key role in these effects. (Agency)
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