दुनिया भर में संक्रमण मौत का प्रमुख कारण बना हुआ है। भारत में 2019 में कम से कम 6.8 लाख मौतों के लिए पांच बैक्टीरिया जिम्मेदार थे। यह खुलासा लैंसेट के एक नए अध्ययन से पता चला है। भारत में पांच घातक जीवाणु ई.कोली के साथ-साथ एस. निमोनिया, के. निमोनिया, एस. ऑरियस और ए. बॉमनी आदि पाए जाते हैं।
अकेले ई. कोली ने 2019 में भारत में कम से कम 1.6 लाख लोगों की जान ली।
वैश्विक स्तर पर 11 संक्रामक सिंड्रोम में पाए जाने वाले 33 जीवाणुओं के जरिए 77 लाख मौतें हुईं।
लैंसेट ने कहा है, इस अध्ययन में जिन 33 जीवाणु रोगजनकों की हमने जांच की, वे वैश्विक स्तर पर रोग फैलाने के एक प्रमुख स्रोत हैं।
शोधकर्ताओं ने कहा, इसलिए इन पर प्राथमिकता के आधार पर नियंत्रण पाने का प्रयास करना चाहिए।
बर्डन ऑफ एंटीमाइक्रोबियल रेजिस्टेंस 2019 स्टडी के अनुसार शोधकतार्ओं ने ग्लोबल बर्डन ऑफ डिजीज, इंजरीज एंड रिस्क फैक्टर्स स्टडी (जीबीडी) 2019 के तरीकों का इस्तेमाल करते हुए 2019 में 11 संक्रामक सिंड्रोमों में 33 बैक्टीरियल जेनेरा या प्रजातियों से जुड़ी मौतों का अनुमान लगाया।
2019 में संक्रमण से अनुमानित 13.7 मिलियन मौतों में से इन जीवाणुओं से होने वाली मौतें 7.7 थीं।
54.9 प्रतिशत मौतों के लिए स्टैफिलोकोकस ऑरियस, एस्चेरिचिया कोली, स्ट्रेप्टोकोकस न्यूमोनिया, क्लेबसिएला न्यूमोनिया और स्यूडोमोनास एरुगिनोसा जिम्मेदार थे।
अध्ययन में कहा गया है, इन जीवाणु रोगजनकों से उप-सहारा अफ्रीका सुपर-क्षेत्र में सबसे अधिक मौतें हुईं।
135 देशों में मृत्यु का प्रमुख कारण सॉरियस जीवाणु था। यह विश्व स्तर पर 15 वर्ष से अधिक आयु के व्यक्तियों में सबसे अधिक मौतों से भी जुड़ा था।
5 वर्ष से कम उम्र के बच्चों की मौतो के लिए एस निमोनिया सबसे बड़ा कारण रहा।
2019 में, 6 मिलियन से अधिक मौतें तीन जीवाणु संक्रामक सिंड्रोम के परिणामस्वरूप हुईं, जिनमें कम श्वसन संक्रमण और रक्तप्रवाह संक्रमण प्रत्येक के कारण 2 मिलियन से अधिक मौतें हुईं और पेरिटोनियल और इंट्रा-पेट के संक्रमण के कारण 1 मिलियन से अधिक मौतें हुईं। (एजेंसी)
यह भी पढ़े► 'अच्छे' कोलेस्ट्रॉल का स्तर ज्यादा होना हृदय रोग के जोखिम में कमी की गारंटी नहीं
Tokyo: Mycobacteria, a group of pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis in humans, are associated with red blood cells at lung infection sites.
M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria implicated in lung disease are now known to live in macrophages - white blood cells that engulf and kill pathogens. Mycobacteria turn up in blood and sputum coughed up by sick patients.
Red blood cells, although also found in the sputum of tuberculosis patients, have not yet been specifically studied in disease progression.
But, "our research will change the conventional common sense that mycobacteria grow intracellularly", said Yukiko Nishiuchi, Associate Professor at Hiroshima University in Japan.
The team obtained lung tissue samples from five mice infected with two species of Mycobacteria - M. avium and M. intracellulare - as well as from a human patient infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH).
Microscopic examination revealed red blood cells were co-located with mycobacteria in both the capillary vessels and granulomas (clumps of immune cells) of mice and human lung tissues.
To assess the relationship of the mycobacteria to human red blood cells, the team monitored their growth with and without the blood cells. They found that MAH grew more in the presence of red blood cells, multiplying at a rate dependent on blood cell concentration.
Their exponential growth was even faster than the growth of MAH inside macrophages - typically targeted as parasitic hosts by mycobacteria.
The findings, published in the journal Microbiology Spectrum, showed that pathogenic mycobacteria attach to human red blood cells, then capitalise on the relationship to multiply.
Mycobacteria had previously been found outside macrophages at infection sites; the new findings suggest that the presence of those extracellular mycobacteria may be a result of the relationship with red blood cells.
While red blood cells are best known for their role in transporting oxygen between lungs and tissues, they also play two roles in mycobacterial infections. They play a defensive role against infections by capturing pathogens and transferring them to macrophages in the liver and spleen to eliminate them.
Nishiuchi said the study shows that red blood cells may also get targeted as host cells for mycobacteria. However, how these roles play out might determine the outcome of an infection.
If the red blood cells' defense role is going well, the TB or other mycobacterial disease is controlled. But red blood cells overwhelmed by an attack of mycobacteria may help spread them throughout the body, Nishiuchi noted. (Agency)
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Seoul, June 20 (IANS) Certain commensal bacteria that reside in the human intestine produce compounds that can inhibit SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing Covid-19, researchers have found.Previous clinical findings have shown that some patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 have gastro-intestinal symptoms, while others showed signs of infection solely in the lungs."We wondered whether gut resident bacteria could protect the intestine from invasion of the virus," said Mohammed Ali, a doctoral student at Yonsei University in Seoul.To investigate this hypothesis, the researchers screened dominant bacteria inhabiting the gut for activity against SARS-CoV-2. Their search revealed that Bifidobacteria, which have previously been shown to suppress other bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and have proven active against irritable bowel syndrome, had such activity, said Ali. H pylori can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of stomach and also lead to stomach cancer.The investigators also used machine learning to search for potential illness-fighting compounds in databases containing microbially produced molecules, discovering some that might also prove useful against SARS-CoV-2. "To train our model, we leveraged previous coronavirus datasets in which several compounds were tested against targets from coronaviruses," said Ali."This approach seems to be significant as those targets share features in common with SARS-CoV-2."Ali observed that many existing antibiotics and cancer therapies are compounds that bacteria use to compete with each other within the gastrointestinal tract, and that these were initially purified from microbial secretions."Finding microbes that secrete anti-coronavirus molecules will be a promising method to develop natural or engineered probiotics to expand our therapeutics prevention techniques, to provide a more sustainable way to combat the viral infection," said Ali.The research will be presented at the World Microbe Forum, taking place online from June 20 to 24.--IANSrvt/vd
Singapore, June 9 (IANS) Scientists from Singapore's Nanyang Technological University (NTU) have developed a reusable "nanotech mask" that can block 99.9 per cent of bacteria, viruses and particulate matter (PM), as well as kill germs in just 45 seconds, much effective against Covid-19 than the currently used N95 masks.The mask's novel antimicrobial coating is effective for at least six days and its filtration efficiency surpasses those of N95 masks with 95 per cent filtration of PM0.3.The new masks can also be washed and reused over 10 times, making it more sustainable than conventional disposable masks, but just as easy to breathe in.The nanotech mask is made with two key components: an antimicrobial coating made from copper nanoparticles and coated on a non-woven fabric mask which has a unique static-electricity property that draws and traps all nanoparticles and germs.Both are the two most desired properties needed to fight Covid-19, into a single filter, said Professor Lam Yeng Ming, Chair of NTU's School of Materials Science and Engineering."In experiments, our copper nanoparticle coating has an extremely fast and sustained antibacterial activity, with a killing efficiency of up to 99.9 per cent when it meets multidrug resistant bacteria. This coating will help to reduce the spread of bacteria as it kills microbes in droplets trapped by the mask fibres, which provide excellent filtration efficiency. This should give users a double layer of protection compared to conventional surgical masks," Lam saidIn experiments, the mask was able to attract and trap a broad range of particulate matter: from PM10 (average particle size of 10 microns) to PM0.3 (0.3 microns - about 0.3 per cent or the diameter of a human hair) with a filtration efficiency of 99.9 per cent.The nanoparticles are also bonded to the fibres within the mask, so there is no contact with human skin when the mask is worn."With our new composite filter, we can achieve up to 99.9 per cent BFE (Bacterial Filtration Efficiency), trapping almost all microbes and particulate matter from smoke or haze. Its filtration efficiency surpasses a N95 mask but allows the wearer to breathe much easier," said Liu Zheng, Associate Professor at the varsity.--IANSrvt/vd
One may envy or desire long, stylish nails but unless they are clean underneath, they can be the reason behind a range of bacterial diseases such as diarrhoea. Longer nails harbor more dirt and bacteria than short nails, thus possibly contributing to the spread of infection, says Rajesh U Pandya, Managing Director, KAI India
"Fingernails should be kept short, and the undersides should be cleaned frequently to maintain nail hygiene. At the same time, it is important to keep a tab on how you clean the nails. Unless the means are safe, the process of cleaning hands can cause more damage than good," Pandya told IANSlife.
He further explains: wash your hands, including nails, and underneath them, as many times as required with lukewarm water and soap. If you handle stronger dirt like grease, you may want to use a pair of gloves while working or use a specific cleaner for that specific type of dirt. Trimming nails regularly help you to maintain healthy nails and avoid breaking. How frequently you trim your nails will depend on how fast they grow.
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Every time you wash hands, ensure you dry them completely. Moist hands may attract germs that proliferate in a damp environment and facilitate their spread. Before clipping nails, ensure that all equipment to be used, such as nail clippers and files, are properly cleaned and sanitised even if you are using them at home. Sterilising equipment before use is especially important when nail tools are shared among a number of people, as is common in commercial nail salons or any beauty parlour.
Many people are not adequately conscious of the necessity to keep the hands clean, notes Pandya. "Negligence towards hand hygiene can cause a series of diseases, bacterial and viral infections, including by the deadly COVID-19 virus that is wreaking havoc across the country.
"Considering that fingernails can harbor tons of dirt and debris and can become COVID-19's first route of communication, keeping our hands, and by extension our nails, clean is crucial. So, don't let germs make you fall sick. Clean your hands well so you can eat well, and stay healthy," he concludes.
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Seoul, April 19 (IANS) SK Telecom, South Korea's largest mobile carrier, said on Monday it has commercialised the world's first 5G-based disinfection robot in a move to automate anti-infection efforts against COVID-19 in health care facilities.The telecom operator said it partnered with Yongin Severance Hospital to deploy the robot, which uses a real-time location system using a 5G network to roam around the hospital on its own and monitor people's temperatures and whether they are wearing masks.The robot is also equipped with an ultraviolet disinfection system to remove bacteria and germs around the hospital.SK Telecom said the robot can also detect the location of missing patients through its real-time location system and analysis of patient density within the hospital, reports Yonhap news agency.The robot is based on SK Telecom's existing guide robot brand Keemi.Last year, SK Telecom developed an autonomous disinfection robot with Omron Electronics Korea, which was deployed at the mobile carrier's headquarters in central Seoul.--IANSna/
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