New York, Feb 13 (IANS) Researchers have identified early risk factors that predicted heightened anxiety in young adults during the Covid-19 pandemic.The findings, published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, could help predict who is at greatest risk of developing anxiety during stressful life events in early adulthood and inform prevention and intervention efforts."People differ greatly in how they handle stress," said researcher Daniel Pine from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Section on Development and Affective Neuroscience."This study shows that children's level of fearfulness predicts how much stress they experience later in life when they confront difficult circumstances, such as the pandemic," Pine added.For the study, the team examined data from 291 participants who had been followed from toddlerhood to young adulthood as part of a larger study on temperament and socio-emotional development.The researchers found that participants who continued to show a temperament characteristic called behavioural inhibition in childhood were more likely to experience worry dysregulation in adolescence (age 15), which in turn predicted elevated anxiety during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic when the participants were in young adulthood (around age 18).Behavioural inhibition is a childhood temperament characterized by high levels of cautious, fearful, and avoidant responses to unfamiliar people, objects, and situations.Previous studies have established that children who display behavioural inhibition are at increased risk of developing anxiety disorders later.--IANSvc/in
New York, Jan 18 (IANS) One in three parents strongly support schools having mental health programmes like peer support leaders, a new poll suggests.The poll indicates that an estimated one in five teenagers has symptoms of a mental health disorder such as depression or anxiety and suicide is the second leading cause of death among teens.But the first person a teen confides in may not always be an adult -- they may prefer to talk to another teen."Peers may provide valuable support for fellow teens struggling with emotional issues because they can relate to each other," Sarah Clark from the University of Michigan in the US, said in a statement."Some teens may worry that their parents will overreact or not understand what they are going through. Teachers and school counsellors may also have limited time to talk with students in the middle of other responsibilities," Clark added.According to the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health at Michigan Medicine, three-quarters of parents in a new national poll think peers better understand teen challenges, compared to teachers or counsellors in the school. The majority also agree that peer support leaders at school would encourage more teens to talk with someone about their mental health problems.The poll found that 38 per cent believe if their own teen was struggling with a mental health problem, their teen would likely talk to a peer support leader and 41 per cent of parents say it's possible their teen would take advantage of this option. Another 21 per cent said it's unlikely their child would seek support from a peer mentor.The nationally representative poll report included responses from 1,000 parents of teens aged between 13-18 about their views on programmes like peer support leaders.--IANSvc/bg
New York, Regardless of genetic risks, exposure to discrimination in life plays a significant role in developing anxiety and related disorders, suggests a new study.
Published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences journal, the study determined that even after controlling genetic risk for anxiety, depression and neuroticism, people reported greater discrimination experiences.
"The results demonstrate that discriminatory experiences can potentially cause stress and mental health problems regardless of the genetic constitution of the individual," said researcher Adolfo G Cuevas, an assistant professor at Tufts University in the US.
To gain insight on the connection, the research team used data from a national probability sample of nearly 1,500 non-institutionalised, all English-speaking adults between 25 to 74 years in age.
Nearly 49 per cent of the sample were women.
Three self-report scales were used to measure discrimination and other forms of social exclusion, including everyday discrimination, major discrimination and chronic job discrimination.
After accounting for increased genetic liability for anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and other potential genetic and socio-demographic factors, the researchers found a high degree of interdependence between discrimination and anxiety.
The team said the findings demonstrate that alleviating the impact of discrimination has the potential to improve mental health within the overall population. (Agency)
Moscow, If you are a workaholic, then there are chances you may suffer negative mental and physical health outcomes such as depression, anxiety or sleep disorder, a new study suggests.
The study, published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, indicates that people with higher work addiction risk compared to people with low work addiction risk have twice the risk of developing depression.
Sleep quality was lower to workers with high risk of work addiction compared to workers with low risk of work addiction. Also women had almost twice the work addiction risk than men, the researchers said.
"We found that job demands could be the most important factor that can develop work addiction risk. So this factor should be controlled or should be investigated by the organization's manager, for example, HR staff, psychologists," said researcher Morteza Charkhabi from Higher School of Economics in Russia.
Workaholics are people who usually work seven and more hours more than others per week.
For the study, the team aimed to demonstrate the extent to which the work addiction risk is associated with the perception of work (job demands and job control) and mental health in four job categories suggested by Karasek's model or Job Demand-Control-Support model (JDCS).
The JDCS model assumes four various work environments (four quadrants) in which workers may experience a different level of job demands and job control: passive, low-strain, active, and tense/job-strain. Job control is the extent to which an employee feels control over doing work.
The researchers collected data from 187 out of 1,580 (11.8 per cent) French workers who agreed to participate in a cross-sectional study.
They team divided all the participants based on their occupational groups and investigated the link between work addiction risk and mental and physical health outcomes.
The results show that high job demands at work are strongly associated with work addiction risk but the job control level does not play the same role.
The prevalence of work addiction risk is higher for active and high-strain workers than for passive and low-strain workers. (IANS)
New York, Expecting mothers, stop worrying or taking any kind of stress as it may affect your baby's chance of developing disease, a new study suggests.
According to a study, published in the journal scholarly journal Biological Psychiatry, stress on an expectant mother could affect her baby's chance of developing disease -- perhaps even over the course of the child's life.
Psychosocial factors creating stress -- such as lack of social support, loneliness, marriage status or bereavement -- may be mutating their child's mitochondrial DNA and could be a precursor to a host of diseases, the researchers at the University of Cincinnati in the US said.
"There are a lot of conditions that start in childhood that have ties to mitochondrial dysfunction including asthma, obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism," said the lead researcher, Kelly Brunst, Assistant professor at the varsity.
"The fetal and infant period is a vulnerable time for environmental exposure due to heightened development during these periods," Brunst added.
For the study, the researchers sequenced the mitochondrial genome and identified mutations in 365 placenta samples from birth mothers.
A multivariable regression model was used to look at maternal lifetime stress in relation to the number of gene mutations in the placenta mitochondrial genome.
Women experiencing increased psychosocial stress -- that can range from sexual assault, domestic violence or serious injury to incarceration, physical or mental illness and family hardship -- over their lifetime exhibited a higher number of placental mitochondrial mutations. (IANS)
New York, Jan 10 (IANS) A new study has revealed that religious people are making use of some of the same tools that psychologists have systematically identified as effective in increasing well-being and protecting against distress, anxiety and depression.Religious people look for positive ways of thinking about hardship, a practice known to psychologists as "cognitive reappraisal."They also tend to have confidence in their ability to cope with difficulty, a trait called "coping self-efficacy."Both have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, said the team from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US."This suggests that science and religion are on the same page when it comes to coping with hardship," said Florin Dolcos, a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.The research was prompted in part by earlier studies demonstrating that people who are religious tend to use a coping strategy that closely resembles cognitive reappraisal.For example, when somebody dies, a religious person may say, 'OK, now they are with God,' while someone who isn't religious may say, 'Well, at least they are not suffering anymore.In both cases, the individual finds comfort in framing the situation in a more positive light, said Dolcos in a paper published in the Journal of Religion and Health.To reach this conclusion, the researchers recruited 203 participants with no clinical diagnoses of depression or anxiety.Fifty-seven of the study subjects also answered questions about their level of religiosity or spirituality. The researchers asked participants to select from a series of options describing their attitudes and practices. The researchers also evaluated participants' confidence in their ability to cope and asked them questions designed to measure their symptoms of depression and anxiety. "If we are just looking at the relationship between religious coping and lower anxiety, we don't know exactly which strategy is facilitating this positive outcome," said study co-author Sanda Dolco. "The mediation analysis helps us determine whether religious people are using reappraisal as an effective way of lessening their distress." The study should be of interest to clinical psychologists working with religious clients. "I hope this is an example of where religion and science can work together to maintain and increase well-being," Florin said.--IANSna/kr
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