London- Adolescents who had received a mental health disorder diagnosis were often excluded from the labour market and education as young adults, finds a new study.
The study indicated that almost 11 percent of adolescents who had received a psychiatric diagnosis were excluded from the education and labour market for at least five years in their early adulthood.
"Vocational rehabilitation and tight collaboration between psychiatry and social services are important for enabling adolescents suffering from mental health problems to access the labour market," said lead author David Gyllenberg from the University of Turku (Finland).
For the study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, the team included 55,273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration.
The results are concerning because they highlight the link between mental health disorders and long-term exclusion from education and labour market.
In the study, long-term exclusion was defined as a period spent outside education or paid employment lasting a minimum of five years.
The link was particularly strong with those teenagers who had not completed their upper secondary education and who had been diagnosed with a mental health disorder.
Almost half of these teenagers who had experienced psychosis and almost three-quarters of teenagers who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder experienced long-term exclusion from education and labour market in their early adulthood.
Read More► Why Covid-19 is More Deadly for Some With Diabetes
London- Researchers have identified an anti-viral gene that impacts the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and severe Covid-19.
A team from the University College London (UCL) estimated that one genetic variant of the OAS1 gene increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease by about 3-6 per cent in the population as a whole, while related variants on the same gene increase the likelihood of severe Covid-19 outcomes.
"While Alzheimer's is primarily characterised by harmful build-up of amyloid protein and tangles in the brain, there is also extensive inflammation in the brain that highlights the importance of the immune system in Alzheimer's. We have found that some of the same immune system changes can occur in both Alzheimer's disease and Covid-19," said lead author Dr Dervis Salih, from UCL's Queen Square Institute of Neurology and UK Dementia Research Institute.
"In patients with severe Covid-19 infection, there can also be inflammatory changes in the brain. Here we have identified a gene that can contribute to an exaggerated immune response to increase risks of both Alzheimer's and Covid-19," Salih added, in the paper published in the journal Brain.
To understand the gene's link to Alzheimer's, the team sequenced genetic data from 2,547 people, half of whom had the brain disorder.
They found that people with a particular variation, called rs1131454, of the OAS1 gene were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease, increasing carriers' baseline risk of Alzheimer's by an estimated 11-22 per cent.
The new variant identified is common, and it has a bigger impact on Alzheimer's risk than several known risk genes, the researchers said.
Further, the researchers investigated four variants on the OAS1 gene, all of which dampen its expression (activity).
They found that the variants increasing the risk of Alzheimer's are linked (inherited together) with OAS1 variants recently found to increase the baseline risk of needing intensive care for Covid-19 by as much as 20 per cent.
That is, the microglia cells where OAS1 gene was expressed more weakly had an exaggerated response to tissue damage, unleashing what they call a 'cytokine storm,' which leads to an autoimmune state where the body attacks itself, the team said.
OAS1 activity changes with age, so further research into the genetic network could help to understand why older people are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's, Covid-19, and other related diseases, they added.
Read More► Why Covid-19 is More Deadly for Some With Diabetes
Bhopal- A team of scientists at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal have in a review identified the biomolecular relationships between Covid-19, ageing, and diabetes.
The review, published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, presented that existing drugs used to treat diabetes, obesity and ageing can potentially be used to treat Covid-19. Similar naturally existing biomolecules were also explored in combination for the Covid treatment.
"There are classes of compounds such as polyphenols found in plant-based food, curcumin (found in turmeric), and resveratrol (found in grapes), have been shown to not only slow down the ageing process, but also possess anti-viral properties," said Dr. Amjad Husain, Principal Scientist, and CEO of Innovation and Incubation Center for Entrepreneurship (IICE), IISER Bhopal, in a statement.
Some other polyphenols that the researchers have identified as being useful for both Covid-19 treatment and comorbidity conditions such as diabetes and ageing may include catechins (present in green tea, cocoa and berries), procyanidins (found in apples, cinnamon and grape skin), and theaflavin (found in black tea).
The researchers also present evidence of some existing potential anti-ageing drugs such as Rapamycin that can be explored for the Covid-19 treatment because of the common biochemical pathways associated with these diseases. Another such example is a drug Metformin , which is usually used to control blood sugar.
The review showed that at the molecular level, there are intersecting pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing, and Covid-19. All three conditions are associated with oxidative stress and lowering of the immune response and complications arising from them lead to the onset of numerous other diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, neuropathy (nerve diseases), and nephropathy (kidney problems).
The researchers believe that an ideal therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 should be able to target the pathways that are common to diabetes, ageing and the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Further, computational studies showed that lipids present in cell membranes play an important role in coronavirus infectivity.
Natural compounds such as polyphenols may affect the binding of the virus to host receptors and the molecular interactions required for virus replication and release, thereby stopping the infection in its early stages, the team explained.
Read More► Risk of Stroke Increases With Insulin Resistance: Study
London- While people with diabetes are no more likely to contract Covid-19 than others, they are more likely to become severely ill if they do catch it.
Research presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has shown that certain characteristics put some people with diabetes at higher risk of serious illness and death than others.
An analysis of over 1,000 patients by researchers from the NHS Foundation Trust, England, showed that those with Type 2 diabetes were 2.5 times as likely to die within seven days of admission as those with other types of diabetes.
This may be because Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people and can be accompanied by other long-standing health conditions, putting them at higher risk of poorer outcomes, the team explained.
Further, those who had insulin infusions were, half as likely to die as those who didn't need IV insulin, showing that better blood sugar control can improve outcomes in patients with severe Covid and diabetes.
The study included 1,004 patients with an average age of 74.1. About 7.5 per cent were admitted to intensive care and 24 per cent died within seven days of admission to the hospital.
The risk of death was also 2.74 times higher among under-70s with chronic kidney disease than those without.
"According to several studies, patients with diabetic kidney disease have a chronic pro-inflammatory state and immune dysregulation, making it difficult to 'fight off' the virus compared to someone who has a properly working immune system," said Llanera, who has recently moved to Imperial College London.
"In addition, ACE2 receptors are upregulated in the kidneys of patients with diabetic kidney disease. These are molecules that facilitate the entry of SARS-COV-2 into the cells. This may lead to a direct attack of the kidneys by the virus, possibly leading to worse overall outcomes, he noted.
The combination of older age and high CRP (a marker of inflammation) was linked to a more than three-fold (3.44) higher risk of death by Day 7.
The higher CRP correlates with a high degree of inflammation, which can eventually lead to organ failure, the researchers said.
The data has been used to create a model, which, if applied to a patient with similar demographic characteristics, can predict a higher risk of death in seven days using only age and CRP as variables.
Read More► Risk of Stroke Increases With Insulin Resistance: Study
London- Insulin resistance is associated with stroke, according to a study of more than 100,000 people with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), presented at the recent annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).
Insulin resistance is when the body's cells don't respond properly to insulin and can't easily take up glucose from blood a key feature of T2D and levels vary from patient to patient.
The higher the insulin resistance, the greater the risk of stroke, revealed the study led by a joint team at the Karolinska Institute, Gothenburg University and the National Diabetes Registry in Sweden.
The team used the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) as a measure of insulin resistance. eGDR has previously been shown to be a good proxy for insulin resistance and is calculated using a formula that factors in a patient's waist circumference, HbA1c (average blood sugar level) and whether they have high blood pressure.
Health records were used to calculate the eGDR of 104,697 T2D patients in Sweden. They were followed up for an average of 5.6 years, during which 4,201 (4 per cent) had a stroke.
Those with the lowest insulin resistance (the highest eGDR) were 40 per cent less likely to have a stroke than those with the highest insulin resistance.
The study also found that higher insulin resistance was linked to a higher risk of death after a stroke. Those with the lowest resistance were 28 per less likely to die during the follow-up period than those with the most severe insulin resistance.
Further analysis showed high blood pressure to be more strongly linked to stroke than waist circumference or HbA1c.
"We found that in individuals with type 2 diabetes, a low eGDR, a simple measure of insulin resistance, was associated with an increased risk of stroke and mortality," said Alexander Zabala from the Karolinska Institute.
"eGDR could be used to help T2D patients better understand and manage their risk of stroke and death," Zabala added. (agency)
Read More► Why asthma worsens at night
New York - For hundreds of years, people have observed that asthma severity often worsens in the nighttime. Researchers have pinned down the influence of the circadian system as the reason and not sleep and physical activities as traditionally thought.
As many as 75 per cent of people with asthma report experiencing worsening asthma severity at night. Many behavioural and environmental factors, including exercise, air temperature, posture, and sleep environment, are known to influence asthma severity.
In the study, the team from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Oregon Health and Science University wanted to understand the contributions of the internal circadian system to this problem.
The circadian system is composed of a central pacemaker in the brain (the suprachiasmatic nucleus) and "clocks" throughout the body and is critical for the coordination of bodily functions and to anticipate the daily cycling environmental and behavioural demands.
"This is one of the first studies to carefully isolate the influence of the circadian system from the other factors that are behavioural and environmental, including sleep," said Frank AJL Scheer, director of the Medical Chronobiology Programme in the Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders at the Brigham.
"We observed that those people who have the worst asthma in general are the ones who suffer from the greatest circadian-induced drops in pulmonary function at night, and also had the greatest changes induced by behaviours, including sleep," added Steven A. Shea, Professor and director at Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences.
The findings are published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
To understand the influence of the circadian system, the team enrolled 17 participants with asthma (who were not talking steroid medication, but who did use bronchodilator inhalers whenever they felt asthma symptoms were worsening) into two complementary laboratory protocols where lung function, asthma symptoms and bronchodilator use were continuously assessed.
In the "constant routine" protocol, participants spent 38 hours continuously awake, in a constant posture, and under dim light conditions, with identical snacks every two hours.
In the "forced desynchrony" protocol, participants were placed on a recurring 28-hour sleep/wake cycle for a week under dim light conditions, with all behaviours scheduled evenly across the cycle.