Without additional investment in childhood cancer care, 11 million children aged 14 years and younger are expected to die from cancer over the next 30 years worldwide, warn researchers including one from Max Super Speciality Hospital in Saket.
According to the researchers, more than 9 million deaths (84 per cent) will be in low-income and lower-middle-income countries.
"Most children with cancer in India die every year. This is because nearly half of them will not get diagnosed and treated and the remaining will get inadequate treatment and social support," Dr Ramandeep Arora, pediatric Oncology, Principal Consultant at Max Super Speciality Hospital told IANS.
"If, however, we invest in developing and scaling-up access and referral pathways and provide high-quality treatment, supportive and social care thud reducing treatment abandonment, we can save the majority of lives of these children with cancer," added Arora who is the co-author of the study published in the journal The Lancet Oncology.
Authored by 44 leading oncologists, paediatricians, global health experts, and economists, the report demonstrated that with investment in expanding worldwide coverage of achievable cost-effective interventions and strengthening health systems, millions of children's lives could be saved, with huge economic benefits that far exceed the costs.
"This report provides compelling evidence that improving outcomes for children with cancer is both feasible and highly cost-effective investment for all countries rich and poor alike," said study researcher Professor Rifat Atun from the Harvard University in the US.
"Expanding access to achievable diagnostics, treatment, and supportive care, alongside strengthening health systems more widely, could prevent more than 6 million child deaths and bring almost $2 trillion in economic benefits over the next 30 years," Atun added.
Around 80 per cent of children diagnosed with cancer in high-income countries will live for more than five years, yet fewer than 30 oer cent of children with cancer in Low-to-Middle-Income Country (LMICs) have the same chance of survival, falling to just eight per cent in eastern Africa.
"Outcomes for children in low- and middle-income countries could be dramatically improved by addressing key issues such as delayed diagnosis and lack of access to essential medicines," said Arora.
"Our report lays out an evidence-based medical framework that countries can use for implementing, integrating, and scaling up care pathways for childhood cancer," he noted.
Without additional investment to improve access to health-care services and cancer treatment, around 13.7 million children are expected to develop cancer worldwide between 2020 and 2050--over 10 million of these cases will be in LMICs, and around 939,000 in high-income countries, the researchers said.
Of these, 6.1 million cases (45 per cent) will be left undiagnosed and untreated. This is particularly true in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where one in two new cases of cancer will be missed.
New York- Obese patients may lose more weight if they undergo bariatric surgery before they develop diabetes, a study suggests.
Bariatric surgery refers to a gamut of weight-loss surgeries often recommended to people suffering from chronic obesity and obesity-related health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol level and sleep apnea.
"Our study suggests that having bariatric surgery before developing diabetes may result in greater weight loss from the surgery, and together with data that is available from other studies, bariatric surgery may potentially prevent or delay diabetes from developing," said lead researcher Elif A Oral from University of Michigan in the US.
According to the researchers, both obesity and diabetes are common, serious and costly in the US. More than one-third of US adults are affected by these two conditions. Among patients have obesity and diabetes, bariatric surgery can lead to remission of both of these diseases.
For the findings, the research team analysed data from 714 patients in the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Cohort (MI-BASiC) to see whether diabetes before surgery could have any impact on weight loss outcomes five years or more after receiving bariatric surgery. The patients underwent either gastric bypass (380 patients) or sleeve gastrectomy (334 patients), which are the two most commonly used surgery types in the US.
All of the patients either had a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40 or a BMI of 35-39.9 with diabetes. BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight.
The study found patients without diabetes had a 1.6 times higher chance than those who already have diabetes of achieving successful weight loss (achieving excess body weight loss of at least 50 per cent or more) regardless of the surgery type. They also found the presence of diabetes before surgery diminished weight loss by 1.2 BMI points, which is roughly 10-15 per cent of the total BMI points patients lost on average.
Even after adjusting the effect of time, surgery type, age, gender and pre-surgery weight, the absolute weight loss, percentage of total weight loss and percentage of excess weight loss among individuals with diabetes were still significantly lower than individuals without diabetes."
Further research is needed to understand why diabetes diminishes the weight loss effect of bariatric surgery," Oral said.
London, March 31 (IANS) People continuously exposed to air pollution are at increased risk of dementia, especially if they also suffer from cardiovascular diseases, warn researchers.According to the study, published in the journal JAMA Neurology, patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) who live in polluted environments may require additional support from care providers to prevent dementia."Interestingly, we were able to establish harmful effects on human health at levels below current air pollution standards," said study first author Giulia Grande from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden."The findings suggest air pollution does play a role in the development of dementia, and mainly through the intermediate step of cardiovascular disease and especially stroke," Grande added.According to the study, the number of people living with dementia is projected to triple in the next 30 years globally. No curative treatment has been identified and the search for modifiable risk and protective factors remains a public health priority.Recent studies have linked both cardiovascular disease and air pollution to the development of dementia, but findings on the air pollution-link have been scarce and inconsistent.To reach the conclusion, the researchers examined the link between long-term exposure to air pollution and dementia and what role cardiovascular diseases play in that association.Almost 3,000 adults with an average age of 74 and living in the Kungsholmen district in central Stockholm were followed for up to 11 years. Of those, 364 people developed dementia.The annual average level of particulate matter 2.5 microns or less in width (PM2.5) are considered low compared to international standards.For the last five years of exposure, the risk of dementia increased by more than 50 per cent per interquartile range (IQR) difference in mean PM2.5 levels and by 14 per cent per IQR in nitrogen oxide, the researchers said.Earlier exposures seemed less important. Heart failure and ischemic heart disease both enhanced the dementia risk and stroke explained almost 50 per cent of air pollution-related dementia cases.Air pollution is an established risk factor for cardiovascular health and because CVD accelerates cognitive decline. "We believe exposure to air pollution might negatively affect cognition indirectly," said Grande."In the study, virtually all of the association of air pollution with dementia seemed to be through the presence or the development of CVD, adding more reason to reduce emissions and optimize treatment of concurrent CVD and related risk factors, particularly for people living in the most polluted areas of our cities," she added.--IANSbu/na
New York- New research has claimed that when temperatures reach extremes of an average daily temperature of 42.7 degrees Celsius, the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease may double or triple.
Given the consistently high temperatures in Kuwait (average ambient temperature 27.8 degrees Celsius), researchers examined the relationship between temperature and more than 15,000 cardiovascular-related deaths in the country.
The highest temperature on earth in the last 76 years, 53.8 degrees Celsius, was recently recorded in Kuwait.
"While cardiologists and other medical doctors have rightly focused on traditional risk factors, such as diet, blood pressure and tobacco use, climate change may exacerbate the burden of cardiovascular mortality, especially in very hot regions of the world," said Barrak Alahmad, a mission scholar from Kuwait University and a PhD candidate at Harvard University in the US.
According to the researchers, all death certificates in Kuwait from 2010 to 2016 that cited "any cardiovascular cause" for individuals ages 15 and older were reviewed for the study, published in the Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.
Compared to the number of deaths on days with the lowest mortality temperature (average daily temperature of 34.7 degrees Celsius, when the fewest people died), when the 24-hour average temperature was extreme (42.7 degrees Celsius or higher), the researchers found overall, a three-times greater risk of dying from any cardiovascular cause.
Men were more affected by the extreme temperatures -- experiencing a 3.5 times higher death rate and the death rate among women was nearly 2.5 higher.
The working-age people (ages 15-64 years) had a death rate 3.8 times higher and the death rate was just over two-times higher for people 65 and older.
According to the researchers, when core body temperature increases, the human body tries to cool itself by shifting blood from the organs to underneath the skin. This shift causes the heart to pump more blood, putting it under significantly more stress.
A collaborative group of cardiologists, environmental health specialists and epidemiologists hypothesised that increasing temperatures in hotter regions of the world could lead to increased CVD death due to extreme heat's effects on the body.
London - Researchers have claimed that women who suffer from psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia following the live birth of their first child are less likely to go on to have more children.
The study, published in the journal Human Reproduction, found that 69 per cent of women who experienced postpartum psychiatric disorders within the first six months after the birth of their first baby went on to have further children.
This contrasts with 82 per cent of mothers who did not experience psychiatric problems.
"We wanted to explore whether women with postpartum psychiatric disorders had a reduced possibility of having a second child. Furthermore, we considered whether a reduction in the live birth rate was due to personal choices or decreased fertility, as these are important issues to consider," said study lead author Xiaoqin Liu from Aarhus University in Denmark.
For the findings, the research team analysed data from Danish registries for 414,571 women who had their first live birth between 1997 and 2015 in Denmark.
They followed the women for a maximum of 19.5 years until the next live birth, emigration, death, their 45th birthday or June 2016, whichever occurred first.
They identified women with postpartum psychiatric disorders by seeing if they were given prescriptions for psychotropic medications or had hospital contact for psychiatric disorders during the first six months after the live birth of their first child.
A total of 4,327 (one per cent) of women experienced psychiatric disorders following the birth of their first child, according to the study.
These women were a third less likely to have a second live birth compared to women who did not experience psychiatric disorders.
If the first child died, the difference in subsequent live birth rates disappeared.
However, if the psychiatric problem required hospitalisation, the likelihood of a woman having a second child nearly halved and this remained the case irrespective of whether the first child survived or not.
"Although fewer women with postpartum psychiatric disorders had subsequent children, it is noteworthy that about 69 per cent of these women still chose to have a second child," Dr Liu said.
"For the remaining 31 per cent of women, we need to differentiate the reasons why they did not have another child. If they avoided another pregnancy due to fear of relapse, an important clinical message to them is that prevention of relapse is possible," Liu added.
The researchers said that other possible explanations for the reduction in the subsequent live birth rate may be that women with postpartum psychiatric disorders are less able to conceive or have more problematic relationships with partners.
London - As the coronavirus outbreak intensifies across the globe as well as in the UK, British experts have made stark warnings about the impact of COVID-19 on local authorities.
A major increase in mortality rates and staff absences will mean a struggle to issue death certificates, leading to a bottleneck in burials and cremations, with mortuaries filled beyond capacity, said the experts from the University of Huddersfield in the UK.
According to the study, published in the journal Emergency Management Review, even if fatality rates are at the lower end of expectations - one per cent of virus victims - it is highly likely that death and bereavement services will be overwhelmed.
"Underestimating the mortality rate could reduce the effectiveness of business continuity plans, whereas knowing what to expect will focus attention on the resources required," the authors wrote.
The study by Dr Julia Meaton, Dr Anna Williams and researcher Helen-Marie Kruger, has drawn on a wide range of data that includes the experience of previous pandemics and analysed the readiness of a local authority in England in order to appraise the scale of the challenge.
"An option would be to have an escalating business continuity plan, where the service prepares for a worst-case scenario, which can then be scaled back depending on the anticipated mortality rate," the authors added.
The findings are based on research carried out in 2019, examining the potential impact of a flu pandemic, but the authors have updated and adapted their facts and figures so that conclusions and recommendations are of immediate relevance.
"The personal tragedy and loss will be unquantifiable," wrote the University trio, adding however that the focus of their paper is on how authorities will manage excess deaths.
For example, burial and cremation services could be beyond capacity four or five weeks into the outbreak.
Limited cemetery and body storage space will also be a major problem, with mass graves a possibility, although this would be highly controversial and would upset and anger many communities, stated the authors.
They have examined the role of coroners and analysed the continuity plans drawn up by local authorities in the event of a pandemic, finding a number of flaws.
In making recommendations, the authors stated that both registration and bereavement services know the death toll will increase during a pandemic but are unsure of the actual figures to plan for.