Fissure in ano is one of the most painful conditions among diseases of the anal region. Though it is a disease mainly caused due to constipation, present day food habits, occupation, mental status of an individual etc play an important role in making it a life style disorder. As it is a life style disorder, each and every individual at some point of time in his lifetime invariably suffers from fissure in ano. So, it is wise to know how fissure in ano can be avoided with slight modifications in our daily life practices.
Fissure in ano is a small cut or tear in the mucosal layer of the anal canal. There are various causes that can lead to fissure in ano like:
• Excess consumption of fried, spicy, junk foods and meat.
• Abnormal posture during defecation.
• Excessive straining during defecation.
• Constant sitting, continuous bike riding etc
• Severe bouts diarrhea.
• Psychological causes like Stress and anxiety can also contribute to the causation of fissure in ano.
• Other typical causes affecting the intestines can also cause fissure in ano. Viz,
• Crohn’s disease
• Irritable bowel syndrome etc
Symptoms of Fissure ano
• Severe pain and burning sensation during and after passing stools.
• Bleeding seen as a streak of blood along the side of the stools.
• In long standing cases, patients can feel a mass at the anal opening which is called a sentinel tag.
When to consult a doctor?
Self-medication without a confirmed diagnosis is always harmful. Also, condition which could have been cured easily in the beginning stage itself becomes chronic and difficult to cure if treatment is not done at proper time. So, it is always better to consult a doctor before taking any medicine.
Hesitation an hinderance to get complete cure in fissure in ano
Usually patients tend to feel shy and hesitate to consultant a doctor for fissure in ano as it involves examination of their private part i.e the anal opening and the anal canal.
If patients are open with the doctor regards to his/her complaints and undergo examination, only then the doctor can diagnose the condition correctly and accordingly the patient can be treated in a proper way. Only this can assure complete relief to the patient from his problem.
It is also the duty of the doctor to gain that trust in the patient which makes him/her open up and talk to the doctor regarding the problems they are facing without hesitation or feeling of shy.
Fissure in ano and Ayurveda
Fissure in ano is termed as Parikartika in ayurveda. Ayurveda advocates both medicinal and surgical management for fissure in ano.
Various forms of treatments are available for fissure in ano in ayurveda like-Internal medication: (Vati-Tablets/capsules; Ghrita- Ghee based medcicines; Kashaya-Medicated decoctions), External treatment life Sitz bath using medicated liquids and most important Matra basti (Infiltrating liquid medicines through anal route) which is proved to be very effective for patients suffering from fissure in ano.
In chronic cases of Fissure in ano where the sentinel pile mass is present, medicinal management fails to give complete relief to the patient. In such cases ayurveda advocates Agnikarma-Cauterization therapy, which gives complete relief for the patient.
Role of Diet in treating Fissure in ano
Dietary modifications play an important role in the treatment of Fissure in ano. Medicines and Diet should go hand in hand for getting complete relief from the condition.
Plenty of fluids
Rice, Ragi(in little quantity) and Jowar
Citrous Fruits like Amalaki(amla)
Adequate Fiber containing foods
Leafy vegetables, fruits
Plenty of fluids Carbonated drinks
Spicy, Fried, Junk foods and Meat
Brinjal. Gobi, Potato
Coffee, Tea, Maida products, Paneer
What are the things to be followed by a patient of Fissure in ano?
Exercise, Jogging and Walking keeps the bowels regulated.
Practice taking food only after feeling hunger and not as per a fixed time.
Practice proper bowel habits. i.e passing stools regularly in the morning.
Use squatting posture for defecation. If not possible, keep the feet up on a stool such that an angle of 35 degree is formed between the straight axis of upper body and thighs.
Withholding the urge of defecation.
Sitting in the toilets for long periods. This will exert pressure on the anal region.
If your work involves continuous sitting, take short breaks in between.
Keeping awake at night.
What are the home remedies to reduce the pain in fissure in ano in emergency conditions?
One can use Sitz bath as an effective home remedy to relieve pain in this condition. 4-5 liters of tolerably warm water added with 5-6 drops of Dettol/10-15gms of fine turmeric powder is taken in a wide-open tub and the patient is made to sit in that tub in squatting position, such that the level of the water should immerse the anal opening. In this position he is asked to contract and relax his perianal muscles (region around the anal opening) for 15-20 minutes. This gives sudden relief from pain and also eases passing of bowels. It can be repeated twice or thrice a day based on the severity of the condition.
Ayurveda provides complete cure for fissure in ano and also prevents recurrence when proper diet is advised. So, the treatment includes consulting your doctor at the right time and following the advice of the doctor by making necessary dietary modifications & lifestyle changes.
Consultant at Ayurcentral, Bengaluru
Asst.Prof at Sri Paripoora Sanathana Ayurveda Medical College Hospital and Research Centre